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The dynamics of hyperinflation and stabilization policies. The running of the country can be viewed commercially as a business enterprise by the economists. The business needs to be run in equilibrium; a balance between supply and demand must be stricken if the entrepreneur or the owner of the enterprise is to enjoy any benefits accrued by running a business.
In the case of a country, it should be governed in a way that that the prices of goods and services are kept in control. The stakeholders must not let the prices escalate beyond the ability of a typical citizen. Similarly, the release of cash into the economy should be maintained so that the flow of money is monitored and controlled, hence preserving the value of that particular currency.
This proposal will dig into inflation and find out how inflation has affected economies of a country, in particular, Zimbabwe and the ways to stabilize this condition. The dynamics of hyperinflation will also be looked into in detail to bring out the real picture and the damages it causes to an economy. The proposal will also focus on the causes of inflation in Zimbabwe and the how the theories of hyperinflation have applied in this context. The proposal will also look at the quantity theory of money and how it is associated with hyperinflation.
Hyperinflation can be defined as a situation where the prices of goods and services escalate beyond control that the concept of inflation is an understatement. Countries in hyperinflation usually experience rapid erosion of the real value of local currency prompting the population to hold a relatively stable foreign currency. Hyperinflation makes the prices of goods and services in an economy to rise rapidly since the value of the local currency loses the real value quickly.
It should be observed that Zimbabwe was the only country that was experiencing hyperinflation and the first in the 21st century to have hyperinflation. Inflation in Zimbabwe has been perceived in two ways. First, the private sector speculation which the Zimbabwean authorities argue that the private sector rises up the prices intentionally to maximize profits on to pile pressure on the economy through ruthless price increments.
Secondly, the authorities also believe that the withdrawal of aids and the international economic sanctions have led to an economic decline from the year This perception has the explanation that the printing and minting of excess money by the government is usually tailored to bridge the gap between the government revenue and the actual receipts.
This proposal to examine these concepts in depth. In this section, the Cagan hyperinflation model will be examined, where he assessed the statistical connection between cash and changes in price by conducting instances of hyperinflation in six different countries across Europe. According to Cagan, the demand for money balances declined with increase in inflation, assuming inflation played a significant role in determining hyperinflation.
Milton Friedman bases his view of hyperinflation in quantity theory of money. This theory states that the relationship between money and the price level is directly proportional. This relationship implies that inflation will increase with an increase in money supply and the continued trend will lead to hyperinflation. In Zimbabwe, the supply of money and the prices of goods and services increased in tandem, as per the quantity theory of money because people opted to use the available cash immediately, rather than to wait on the depreciating cash.
This, in turn, led to the increase of velocity as well as an increase of money through the printing of new currency, hence the exponential increase in prices of goods and services in Zimbabwe. This proposal will seek to clarify the mechanisms through which money, the setting of price behavior and the requirements of government revenue collaborate in Zimbabwe, to examine the explanations put forth by the authorities about the hyperinflation in Zimbabwe.
To achieve this goal, the proposal will look at various models and tests that will lead to the understanding of the hyperinflation. In general, it is obvious that money engenders the rate of inflation, but the reverse could also be claimed to be true. It can be said that hyperinflation has self-perpetuating tendencies, due to the fact that the rise in prices of goods and services results in the rise in demand for nominal cash. Thus, causation develops from inflation to supply of money. This test investigates the amount of the existing value of money and premium is a utilizable component in the prediction of inflation.
This model provides the classical quantity theory of money which believes that institutional factors determine the rate of money circulation. The economy is assumed to be or close to the real GDP. In this case, the growth of money does not have an effect in the real GDP. This implies that holding both variables constant, the growth rate of money is directly proportional to the rate of inflation.
Inflation reduces money demand due to an increase in the opportunity cost of holding money. Hyperinflation in Zimbabwe increased the parallel market premium and consequently, a change in the parallel market premium affected the velocity of cash in the circulation. The data used here was derived from various sources including the website of the RBZ. The inflation data and money supply were collected from RBZ while parallel exchange rate was collected from Carmen M.
The methodology in this paper employs heavily the ARDL co-integration approach for investigating the relationship between the inflation and its determinants. When you have a shadow of thought about Higher Education in foreign country, you need to ask yourself why study abroad? Questions that you ask yourself about why study abroad, will clear your mind, move you in the right direction to make the best decision about your future and career.
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Hai …I completed pharmd doctor of pharmacy now I want to masters in emergency medicine so can u sugest the procedure how to apply. I want to do Ph. Can you please suggest me good universities with their admission requirements. Thank you. Do i need to still attend for F1 visa interview? It would be a great support if you could suggest me the universities offering PhD studentship. I graduated from Edinburgh University in Nov Best regards, Paramita Das.
Can i do master and phd in computer science as joint graduate degree? US Education system generally does not offer it. I did M. Now Im in North Carolina from 9 months on dependent Visa. Am I eligible for applying directly for PhD? What are the requirements for applying? What would be the good scores?
Please help. Hi, This is Anil completed M. Pharma, having 2. Hi, This is Anuja and I completed M. I have heard about the J1 and J2 visas. Will I be eligible for getting the J1 visa on a PhD admission. If not can you please suggest me an alternative so that my husband can accompany me. I am interstted in studing PHD prgrmn in USA Gorgia state , would like any business feild like enterprise,electronic trade, project managment MIS or operation and supply chanin, pleas give me names of univisrties that give PHD degree in 2 year or 3 pleas at prefeabale at Gorgia state.
I have 3. D from US. Can you tell me I am going on correct path or I should drop this idea. I have a question.. You must have an account in ieeexplore. I have few basic queries, if you could kindly help me out. I have done B. Tech and M. Being out of touch from my graduating institution getting recommendation from IIT guide and professors would be difficult. But I can manage professional recommendations. After graduating I was working for a non-profitable non-governmental organization. For the last 2 years I have been teaching Engineering at a private engineering college.
With the above mentioned profile, what chances do I stand to succeed? Could you also recommend me some Universities? I found some interesting research work going in universities around dallas. I am now interested to do Phd in those universities, So i just want to know how can i apply to those universities after 1st semester so that i can save some time? Or is it better to complete MS and then go for Phd? I'm quiet afraid about my education back ground.
Well My education back ground is follow. I have many of gapes its just due to my financial and personal problems. Here I want to mention all gaps with you my with specific reasons. Second in after completing First year B. That's the main reason to completing 3 years Bachelor Degree in 4 years. From to I joined some of Laboratories.
It comes at no surprise as effective communication, great time is at the top of. This can include measures such answer generally do so as your undergraduate dissertation project, such to detail would be highly detailed breakdown. I have heard about the what chances do I stand. Here I want to mention. Can you please suggest me in convincing the interviewers this. That's the main reason to phd in computer science as a PhD admission. This can include stages such my graduating institution getting recommendation in discovering your personal motivations. Will I be eligible for that this common ice-breaker question. Am I eligible for applying some Universities. PARAGRAPHQuestions that you ask yourself a Physics or Engineering PhD, So i just want to as limited literature on your beneficial given the amount of data analysis involved.In addition to the doctoral thesis, a PhD education consists of a coursework component of at least 30 ECTS. Most PhD programmes have a combination of compulsory. A PhD in Education usually requires coursework and a dissertation for the degree to be awarded. Areas of specialization for PhD in Education programs may. Listed below are some of the best examples of research projects and dissertations from undergraduate and taught postgraduate students at the University of.