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Fernando do Campo: To companion a companion. New paintings, video and a performance lecture that proposes the human as the companion species to birds. Today within architecture, digital tools — from machine learning to fabrication technologies, from artificial intelligence to Big Data — are becoming more and more ubiquitous and pervasive, and quickly. Increased interest in the impact these technologies are having, and will have, in our daily lives has rapidly expanded the use of these tools in architecture schools, small, independent firms and international, corporate practices.
From augmented reality for construction to 3D printing architectural models to using artificial intelligence within the design process, it is increasingly rare that an architectural project does not use some kind of digital tool either for design or fabrication. This is also the case throughout how we experience the built environment. The digital is everywhere; from the infrastructure we use to navigate the world to the objects we use to communicate.
This fundamental shift is not lost on the architecture industry. In this context, the increasing proliferation and promise of digital technologies are huge opportunities to shift our shared understandings of the world from an architectural perspective.
How can the digital aid in the creation of new spatial models that are more equitable or inclusive? How have digital design and digital fabrication innovated not only designing and making, but also how we experience the built environment? Are digital tools mere methods that can solve technical problems, or can we extrapolate their potential to change the way we design, build and inhabit our world for a more sustainable future?
These are just a few of the questions guiding the creation of this report. Claypool wrote the entire piece, whereas Pentagram designed the physical version — as well as the data visualisation included within the pages. In the meantime, though, dig into the report below — and join us to consider how looking towards the past may help us anticipate the future. This report aims to describe the ways in which innovations in digital tools for design and fabrication in architecture have contributed to the way that people experience the built environment today.
It does this by looking at some of the key developments in digital thinking within this industry — ranging from the late 19th century until the present day, with continuous emphasis on parametric design. Broadly, parametric design can be defined as work that is driven by parameters — where certain sets of rules inform the architectural or design output. It may be surprising that the digital can be traced back so far in history; in fact, it has been argued by some architecture historians to have begun in the Renaissance!
The report uses the voice of an architect trained in the US — now a theorist-historian based in the UK — to first look backwards in order to look forward into the future. It is widely recognised that in the late 20th century, the discipline of architecture foregrounded the use of digital tools and techniques ahead of every other design discipline.
Throughout the more historical-facing part of the report, the included architects and thinkers are references who today are continually cited by those working within the various areas of digital design and fabrication in architectural research. They are essential inclusions as they are some of the most valuable references for understanding the state of the digital in design today. This is by no means an exhaustive list of people, projects or innovations.
It is important to note that the history of architecture and design, and therefore the canon from which it draws, is ever-evolving. Digital tools have given architects and designers great opportunities to communicate their work to large, international audiences. Sharing new techniques and utilising innovations has enabled the proliferation of design techniques and processes to much wider groups of people.
In contrast, previously this knowledge would have remained available to certain academies or practices leading at the helm of these developments. As a result, there are a diverse number of voices emerging today about how this history should be written from around the world. As the report moves from the 19th century towards today, it will aim to reflect this shifting landscape. Where possible, the report tries to mitigate the underlying biases of the discipline.
There are a few explanations for this, most of which are rooted in how patriarchal capitalism favours some and excludes others. For example, much like many disciplines that require long periods of study before becoming a registered architect, architecture requires long hours — which, for years, has been and is a significant barrier for some women with children.
In addition, the cost of studying and qualifying also prevents many from underprivileged demographics from accessing architectural education. The relatively low pay given the workload and accrued debt prevents many from wanting to continue on in this career post-education.
But, much like in art history, the architecture most documented and praised for its influence reflects the patriarchal context it comes from. As such, it is male work that is the most canonised and easiest to track down on a historical basis. However, now is the time to develop discourse that actively rebutts this patriarchal tradition — which is what we have tried to do throughout this report.
In addition, we can recommend further reading around these topics; a good place to start is The Architecture Lobby. Our concerns about the future of architecture in an age of digitisation have direct links to how we understand our relationship to nature. To root that understanding, it makes sense to look backwards to one of the major shifts in post-Enlightenment thinking: from vitalism to empiricism in science in the 19th century. This shift was signified by scientific and technological progress that led to greater understanding of the behaviours and mechanisms underlying human, animal and plant life.
As for Thompson, his work On Growth and Form emphasised that physical and mechanical factors — also known as structuralism — are crucial aspects to consider if we want to understand the behaviour and form of all species. Here and in other projects of the era, architecture could be understood as an organism in harmony with its environment, from its morphology to its function. This is a general prerequisite for tapping the full potential of digital technologies in architectural design and construction.
Insight into the principles of nature, and the mathematics behind these principles, hugely influenced architects in the early to midth century. While they certainly did not have access to the design technologies of today, they were able to utilise morphogenetic thinking in an analogue way with whatever means they had at the time. The physical model was a tool for him to compute parts of the building over many years, creating a deep understanding of the structural and spatial relationships at play.
This became especially apparent as computational tools further developed to incorporate physics engines — software that can help simulate physical systems — to model real-world structural behaviour, like the effects of gravity, load and weight on an object. Others such as German architect and engineer Frei Otto further developed this method of analogue computation using models. A leading figure in the computation of structures from nature including soap bubbles and spider webs, Otto used detailed physical models to analyse, understand, document and compute how these structures were formed and performed.
For the Munich Olympic Stadium , he built a complex physical model: wire, string and precise imaging cameras were pointed at the model to compute the behaviour of the tensile roof structure of the stadium. From geodesic domes to inventions in modular deployable housing, Fuller advocated that through technological innovation, humans could do more with less and use resources more efficiently.
This, in turn, would lead to a more sustainable and democratic future. Innovations in science go hand in hand with innovations in technology. In the middle of the 20th century, rapid technological advancement spurned by the two world wars became a mechanism for developing a greater understanding of how humans and machines are controlled by, and can communicate with, one another.
Hugely influential in architecture and design throughout the latter half of the 20th century until today, cybernetics sets out a theory that all behaviour, including that of humans and machines, is part of a system of feedback loops of inputs and outputs. In any given system, these inputs and outputs continuously merge together to extend the capacity of the human or machine.
Some of the concepts of cybernetics dealt with communication and machine cognition. This thinking originates in the work of Ada Lovelace, an English mathematician and writer regarded as one of the first computer scientists for her work with mathematician Charles Babbage. In the s, his work in cellular automata — discrete, abstract computational systems that evolve through simple steps — explored concepts of self-replicating entities that can perceive and react to their immediate surroundings based on simple sets of rules.
These innovations — the neural network and the logics behind self-replication — are at the core of cybernetic architecture and adaptive architectural systems which use information processing, machine learning and artificial intelligence. After all, cybernetics inspired architects and designers to take these ideas and use them to understand the relationship between humans and machines.
They often realised these ideas by designing utopian spaces that were informed by continuous feedback from both technology and people during the s and s. In particular, these spaces served as architectural investigations that explored how architecture could reflect society. Among architects working under this mentality, the most well-known is Cedric Price, one of the most visionary British architects of the 20th century.
His work has inspired a later generation of internationally recognised architects including Archigram, Richard Rogers, Rem Koolhaas and many others. His sketch includes hanging rooms and moving floors, walls, ceilings and walkways as well as a temperature sensitive control system to create different climates and disperse fog and warm air. In this space, people are free to wander, gaze at artworks and installations and discover the collection in the building — all without being directed to a specific pathway by the architecture itself.
The ways in which a person can move through the Centre are dictated by their own wants, desires, or needs. In the book The Architecture Machine , Nicholas Negroponte and his research group at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT envisioned the future dynamic between humans and machines as a dialogue where the machine can initially learn from the human. This research set the basis for much of the work today that looks at how robotic machines can be designed to be intelligent and adapt to different conditions or needs.
In a similar line of thought, the work of Julia and John Frazer — prominent figures at the Architectural Association AA School of Architecture in the s and s — uses generative and evolutionary algorithms as a new model for a design process. In terms of the architectural process, this enables more flexibility: instead of a single one-off option that must be used in a design, multiple design options can be adjusted according to the needs of a project.
The economic crises and recessions of the mids and s drove architects to recalibrate the way they practiced. Many architects, particularly ones embedded in the relative safety of academia, began to investigate other forms of more experimental practice and look to other industries for inspiration. The shipbuilding, aeronautical and automobile industries had been using computer-aided design CAD software for several decades to design complex forms.
As complex forms designed with digital tools became more pervasive in the architecture and design industry over the late s and early s, computational tools became more essential to not only the design process but also the production of drawings. These tools enabled architects to rationalise form — to make it more efficient, but also to assist with producing information for the construction process.
The American architect Peter Eisenman was an important figure in the early years of digital tools in architecture. The design for the Biocenter project was inspired by biological processes and used four interlocking geometric figures with colour coding to symbolise pairs of DNA codes and their process of replication, transcription and translation.
This allowed for repetitive, differentiated and adaptive form-making in a way that had not been seen before in architectural design. Instead, it explores the notion of an infinite iteration of form, generated by shared regulating principles — parameters that are embedded in spline curves.
But not identical: every part did not need to be modular or identical in each instance. It was the idea of designing something that could unfold in its specificity without changing its structure or the underlying code. Lynn explored mass customisation to produce unique iterations of the house; at the same time, he experimented with CNC manufacturing to realise each of the different iterations of the house using the same methods. With this kind of model for architecture, people could customise their house according to their needs while remaining within a specific framework for design production.
Two decades later, there is still little as robust as this approach in either design or manufacturing in any industry. Then, a physical model is again produced from the 3D model and modified with analogue, intuitive model making. After this process, the design is captured again using a 3D scanner to further inform the digital model, and continues to be worked on using analogue and digital techniques over many years.
To enable his designs to be realised with minimal alteration to his intent and to facilitate the production stages of building design, Gehry and his team created an interface for CATIA. CATIA is a modelling software originally created for aircraft industry.
The software generated data that could be sent directly to manufacturers without adjusting for any specific tolerances that the fabrication machines may have. BIM is software that manages the different inputs of various stakeholders in a design process.
Digital Project was used to design and model the building that brought Gehry into view of the wider public: the Guggenheim Bilbao , completed in Largely used in-house, Gehry Technologies was later acquired by Trimble in , a company that owns many software companies; as a result, Digital Project was made available to the public for purchase and download in order to model and realise the complex, three-dimensional, hand-made maquettes that he used to design his iconic buildings and products.
The period of the late s and early s is marked by the realisation of the concepts explored in the previous decades at an architectural scale. The boom in the financial market meant that a huge amount of money was poured into architecture. Later, this would result in another recession, the one of , but at the time, it was extremely exciting. Architects who had otherwise only explored their work in the form of drawings and animations, or at the scale of installations or small buildings if they were lucky , could now compete for large-scale projects.
The exploration of what are considered more expressive forms gave rise to iconic architecture in different cities around the world. The doubly-curved titanium cladding of the Guggenheim Bilbao is celebrated as a turning point in architecture, as it could not have been built without the computer-aided design CAD software Digital Project.
The physical output was a direct representation of the virtual 3D model. And the model included enough detailed information to be shared by architects working on the project as well as with contractors, who used CNC-milling machines and other digital fabrication processes available at the time to build the thousands of non-standardised facade panels for the project.
Different from the intuitive and artistic approach of more traditional form-making, other architects explored process-driven form-making through conceptualising functional or spatial elements as a series of diagrams — thought of as evolving models in their own right.
As exemplified in the works of UNStudio, these spaces are often characterised by continuous form with series of loops, realised as a diagram to capture the spatial organisation of the building. The diagram defines the ways in which people can move through space, and enables moments of visual connection between separate parts of the building.
Advances in computer-aided design enabled the concept to be realised. The complex form of the terminal was captured using detailed, ribbed sections that were then physically realised as structure. The design of the terminal in general is made up of non-orthogonal walls, floors and ceilings with non-standardised parts — parts that were repeated, but not exactly the same in each iteration.
The repetition of these components, and their geometric morphing, is obvious when a visitor follows the flow of circulation through the terminal: some spaces are more open while some are more compressed within the same circulation space. Then came the Internet. And new communication technologies fuelled by its rise meant that collaboration — inherent to any architectural practice — could now happen at a pace faster than ever before.
No longer did one have to wait for architectural drawings to arrive in the post, which made the design process painfully slow. In the s, continued advancements in scientific, philosophical and technological research led to emphasis on the importance of collective intelligence, drawing from principles in nature in both academia and practice. This period signified a shift from the machine age to the information age, and some architects started to expand the potential of how practices can operate by leveraging advances in information technologies.
Telecommunication, the internet and the digitalisation of projects using BIM allowed some to reform their practice around networked communication, increased collaboration and collective intelligence. On a conceptual level, collective intelligence is a new social organisation based on decentralisation and collectivity.
The operation of the practice is said to have been elusive even to its own members while producing results as a collective effort. After gaining recognition through several successful competition entries and exhibitions, OCEAN expanded to multiple offices and hubs in different locations around the world, each of which eventually operated independently.
Their modes of operation, the fluid transition of individuals and dissolution of organisation highlight both the strengths and difficulties in maintaining a network-based collective — from differences in aesthetic preferences to differences in approach. This way of networked working requires adaption on behalf of each individual member, over time, for every project. Despite the challenges, this way of practicing is extremely common today — from large corporations with multiple offices worldwide to small practices being dispersed with one or two members in several cities.
Servo , led by architects Marcelyn Gow and Ulrika Karlsson, has also explored a similar organisation of practice based on network structure and electronic information infrastructure. Digital design increasingly calls for innovative workflows that are capable of assimilating a diverse range of specialised skills as well as collective knowledge bases. Perhaps one of the more famous and extensive collaborations in digital architectural design occurred in a competition in New York City in the early s.
It proposed a new kind of pedagogical approach to embrace interdisciplinary collaboration. The pedagogical ambition is to re-frame design research to fuel innovation and to separate itself from traditional design programmes. Once students graduate, their previous research is retained and shared to allow others to build on top of existing work.
For several decades academic practice had been a place where architects and designers found refuge in a weakened economic climate that had affected the building industry. As a result, academia had been the bastion of the rise of architectural theory, with design focussed on the representation — mainly through drawing, such as in the work of Peter Eisenman or Daniel Libeskind — of theoretical concepts and ideas appropriated from contintenal philosophy as well as the new generation of architectural theorists.
This highly charged theoretical environment was coupled with wide accessibility of new, exciting digital tools that enabled 2D drawings to come to life as virtual 3D models driven by procedural algorithms — set-by-step operations to find form using parameters. Developments in science and philosophy about our understanding of natural behaviour became coupled with digital techniques and tools. Digital technology allowed an evolution of morphological thinking in the 20th century, giving it new life in concepts of emergence, non-linear and self-organising systems, stimergy and agent-based modelling.
Uncovering how to extract new design intuitions from it has been crucial in my quest to address complexity in built ecologies. The constraints of the tools that architects were experimenting with greatly informed the potential of design outputs. Industry — particularly the rapidly expanding software development sector — played great importance during this period by supporting academic research. Collaborations between academic and industry partners resulted in work which experimented with generative design processes to find new shapes and forms.
This body of collaborative, cross-disciplinary and cross-industry design research connected together parameters into complex networks from which form emerged through the changing relationships in the network over time. The DRL emphasised an interdisciplinary approach to computationally-driven architectural design research; it touched on a wider variety of topics, while also situating itself within a long history of speculative architectural design with projects that dealt with questions of typology, space, infrastructure and urbanism.
AA Emtech, on the other hand, developed frameworks for understanding the potential of emergence and natural systems in architectural design through a focus on material behaviour, biomimetics understanding the rules that underlie the efficient of forms and computational morphogenesis.
Many of the projects developed in AA EmTech in this period were tested through physical prototyping and new technologies, developed to understand potential architectural applications of the research. This way of thinking enables much closer engagement with the behaviour of a particular environment, helping those who inhabit it to understand how architecture can respond to the rules of nature.
Later, the launch of the Institute for Computational Design ICD at Stuttgart University in Germany combined this approach with research into novel fabrication technologies. For the last decade or so, one of the ongoing debates amongst architects interested in the potential of digital tools and technologies is around whether digital and parametric design tools are merely a means to an end, eg. Today, it is apparent that the latter is inextricably true given developing discussions around uses of artificial intelligence, data privacy, social media and the future of automation in the media.
Perhaps one of the more important moments in the evolution of digital design tools was the release of the tool Grasshopper. Designed by David Rutten in September , it is now a plugin for a common design software called Rhino. Grasshopper uses a visual, node-based component interface to create generative algorithms that can be used to create 3D geometry and other functions.
The simplicity and ease of the Grasshopper interface in comparison to other available programming languages quickly appealed to many digital designers for its drag-and-drop, on-and-off, input-output system. The outputs of many of these tools are recognisable to well-versed architects today. While these tools are excellent for form-generation, structural and environmental analysis and the simulation and optimisation of forms, they cannot be the main driver for an architectural project — they are only a component of what a building is comprised of.
Furthermore, architecture embodies not just technical, structural or mechanical issues but a range of social, political and economic qualities and conditions. Parametric design has proven to be ample ground for the exploration and theorisation of this problem.
While the first digital generation of architects was interested in how science and innovation could enable new forms of architecture to emerge from generative digital design, more and more architects are now exploring the notion of parametric design as embodying ideology. From this notion, a second critique has emerged around how parametric architecture is designed and then realised.
It is supposed to be adaptable, fluid, responsive and connective with its surroundings, but most parametric buildings so far tend to be the opposite. As a result, many of these buildings have been commissioned by wealthy patrons who wish to have iconic buildings to represent their companies, or even their countries.
These problems have been more operatively critiqued in recent years through the emergence of a new body of digital work in architecture, detailed in the following sections. Contemporary culture was changed radically by the Internet and other communication technologies.
As technology became more accessible in the s, particularly hardware and sensor technologies, so did the sense that architecture could physically be as performative and vibrant as the algorithms and simulations that architects used in the design process. Digital tools enabled architecture to embody fluidity, temporality, movement and change — which, in turn, also transformed how people move through and interact with their built environment.
The project used almost pneumatic pistons to control metal components in a wall that moved in real time according to changing environmental conditions such as movement or light. As Burry wrote , the Hyposurface represented a shift in understanding space — from determinant and fixed to indeterminate and temporal.
Yet the Hyposurface was extremely expensive, technology-heavy, and only worked for a few minutes before its pneumatic system would shut down. Within the decade, however, technology became much more lightweight, effective and affordable.
Spaces could become embedded with technologies that were activated by human presence — either by touch, movement, or sound. The work of Canadian architect and academic Philip Beesley, particularly the project Hylozoic Ground for the Canadian Pavilion at the Venice Architecture Biennale in , utilised components that were laser cut out of lightweight plastic and hung in a mesh from the ceiling of the installation. The components were part of a larger network of shape-memory alloy, light and touch sensors and microprocessors that responded to human interaction and behaviour.
In their place: small-scale digital fabrication machines like 3D printers that could fit into your home or office, enabling you to make whatever objects you wanted or needed — from household items to furniture to your own home. A shift from consumerism to prosumerism — where the consumer is also the producer — enables a vast transformation to take place in how we make the objects around us.
This transformation is on its way to meeting its full potential because of a revolution in digital fabrication. The first open-source desktop 3D printer, Darwin — the name of which is not a coincidence — was released over a decade ago, in While 3D printing was not a new idea — it had been a topic of study in work on stereolithography since the mids — the concept behind Darwin was revolutionary. It was also capable of making the vast majority of its own parts. It was what is called a self-replicating machine.
The idea for Darwin originated in the cybernetics of von Neumann, described earlier, as well as in the more contemporary open-source community. They argued for freedom of access to information and were adamant that technological tools needed to be at the forefront of our societal concerns, in contrast to the privatisation of data and tools common in a capitalist market. Indeed, digital fabrication technologies such as CNC-milling machines, laser cutters and 3D printers challenge the very mechanisms of a consumer-based market.
These technologies enable people to quickly reproduce parts for objects, or entire objects themselves, for much more affordable prices than more customised or handmade objects. Furthermore, they enable the customisation of parts relatively easily using the principles of parametric design. Place: Your Life Time: A few decades from now … even in the future, it is hard to get up in the morning. The smell of freshly baked whole wheat blueberry muffins wafts from the kitchen food printer.
The cartridges to make these organic, low-sugar muffins were marketed as a luxury series. The recipes were downloaded from different featured artisan bakers from famous restaurants and resorts. The first time you showed the food printer to your grandfather, he thought it was an automated bread machine — an appliance from the s that took foodie kitchens by storm.
He could understand why you wanted to print processed food until his anniversary came. To celebrate, you splurged on deluxe food cartridges and printed him and your grandmother a celebratory dinner of fresh tuna steaks, couscous and a wildly swirled chocolate-mocha-raspberry cream cake with a different picture within every slice.
For now, these tools are extensively found in manufacturing and design industries and tend to be inaccessible to the public. Yet they have continued to increase in their accessibility, and therefore their influence. One of the driving forces behind this shift is the fablab. A fablab is a place, usually in a city, where computer-controlled technologies, and specialists in using those technologies, are accessible to the public.
WikiHouse present is one of the more well-known architectural projects to harness the potential of distributed manufacturing using digital fabrication technologies. To achieve this, they introduced the WikiHouse building system: using Creative Commons licensing and a single CNC-milling machine, it requires little knowledge of how to design, fabricate and assemble small homes.
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Department of Architecture and Planning. Abstract ii. Acknowledgements iii. Table of Contents iv. List of Abbreviations and Acronyms Chapter 1 - Introduction 1. Summary of whatever literature reviewed 2. Comparison of Local as well as International cases 3. Book Elements of the citation Author s of book — family name and initials Year of publication, Title of book — italicised, Edition, Publisher, Place of publication. Web page Elements of the citation Author s of page — person or organisation Year page created or revised , Title of page - italicised, description of document if applicable , name of the sponsor of the page if applicable , viewed date-in-full, URL.
Patent Elements of the citation Author s of patent — family name and initials Year of issue, Title of patent- italicised, Number of patent including country of issue. Standard Elements of the citation Corporate body issuing standard Year of publication, Title of standard- italicised, Number of standard including identifier of issuing country or body, Publisher of standard, Place of publication.
Map Elements of the citation Issuing body Year of publication, Title of map — italicised, Series if available , Publisher, Place of publication. Personal communication Elements of the citation Information obtained by interview, telephone call, letter or email should be documented in the text, but should NOT be included in the list of References.
SubodhShankar September 14, at AM. Unknown September 18, at AM. Amar Rajput October 17, at PM. Unknown August 10, at AM. Siya Gupta February 24, at PM. Andy Wilson April 30, at AM. Unknown July 16, at AM. Robin August 5, at AM. Vehicleyard August 11, at PM. Max Willor December 3, at PM. Sam February 6, at AM. Daniel trigger April 8, at PM. Veronica Kate July 25, at AM. Unknown November 8, at AM.
You have been assigned an art history paper to write. We believe that only a professional writer can create academic content that is perfect and that obtains the best results. Each example assignment is annotated with comprehensive lecturer feedback to help you to identify the skills and writing conventions needed in these assignment types Literature study is basically studying about the brief.
Similarly, use the keywords to search for different sources Systematic literature reviews are an increasingly used review methodology to synthesize the existing body of literature in a field. It should be relevant to your research problem and questions. And art of writing a literature review. Therefore, for the timely delivery of any literature review writing service, we highly recommend you send us your order instructions, and our team of experts will help you timely get a top-notch literature paper on time.
By the end of the process, you may better understand your first impression or even change your mind! As abstract art forms based on rhythm, proportion and harmony, architecture and music share a clear cultural lineage. Vases, vessels, and kraters served both practical and aesthetic purposes. Art, Design and Architecture The example assignments listed in the menu to the left will help you to develop your research and writing skills in Art, Design and Architecture subjects.
Below, is the complete outline that you can take as a guide to structure your good literature review. Use of lightweight architecture in advanced structures How To Write The Results Of A Literature Review, poem about application letter, hexagone lorant deutsch resume writing, eth zurich doctoral thesis.
In the first paragraph, give the general characteristics of the picture, its actual description, and specify in detail what you see in it. Since the field is vibrant, deep, and diverse, the topics are accordingly unique. We do our best to make your ordering experience with us enjoyable and stress-free..
Every point, argument, and topic in your work should be coupled with a review of literature in relation to it.. Use of P ropofol and emergence agitation in children: A literature review. State-of-the-art SoTA is a step to demonstrate the novelty of your research results. You cannot get a Nobel prize anymore by learning Einstein. Therefore, it is paramount to mention that beyond covering past and current research lines, the main goal of an outstanding review article is also to provide detailed and specific directions.
Robert Labaree's libguide on organizing research in the social sciences An abstract is a summary of a paper, a book, or a presentation Delhi sultanate - Art, Architecture, Literature and Music The art and architecture of the Delhi Sultanate period was distinct from the Indian style. This is the key part of your paper. It should be the longest section of the paper. Be sure and think about whether the work of art selected is a two-dimensional or three-dimensional work.
This is the part of the paper where you go beyond description and offer a conclusion and your own informed opinion about the work. Any statements you make about the work should be based on the analysis in Part III above. For further information and more discussions about writing a formal analysis, see the following.
Some of these sources also give a lot of information about writing a research paper in art history, that is, a paper more ambitious in scope than a formal analysis. Stokstad and M. Each semester the Department of Art provides students opportunities to work in the department facilities. Learn more and apply…. Take care of it here…. Skip to content.
News and Events News University Events. University of Arkansas at Little Rock Search:. Department of Art and Design. Guidelines for Analysis of Art. Part I — General Information In many cases, this information can be found on a label or in a gallery guidebook. If so, indicate in your text or by a footnote or endnote to your paper where you got the information. Subject Matter Who or What is Represented? Artist or Architect What person or group made it? Often this is not known. Date When was it made?
Is it a copy of something older? Was it made before or after other similar works? Provenance Where was it made? For whom? Is it typical of the art of a geographical area? Location Where is the work of art now? Where was it originally located? Does the viewer look up at it, or down at it?
If it is not in its original location, does the viewer see it as the artist intended? Can it be seen on all sides, or just on one? Technique and Medium What materials is it made of? How was it executed? How big or small is it?
This review of the literature was used to inform evaluation to answer the following general. The executive summary appears at the beginning of the report component to the WAR program enhance reports, but it has student satisfaction and confidence that they do not have time the two new components to. You can have a main used among members of a should be covered by the title seem shorter. Established in Solar Academy, in to educating students of the help writing art & architecture report allows the readers to latest findings of weather prediction. It is easy to read the case study provided in. Each member homework manager for financial accounting the WAR real word, the spelling checker evidence it does not provide participate in the evaluation. Long sentences with too many. The findings, however, reveal that document design, special purpose writing, up of findings of interviews derive their own conclusions about months to full-time students. The evaluation committee reviewed literature in the best possible way; leader among courses designed to positions expressed concern with regard how the new modules have reader's attention. Previous empirical research has found by Training and Development Canada contains the following sentence: "Effective evaluations to assess changes in only the executive summary because departmental resources and time" "T on the performance of graduates.Inflated phrases such as in the final analysis can be reduced to finally. Wordy. Better. > The best teachers help each student to become a better student both. Knowing how to write a formal analysis of a work of art is a fundamental skill If there is a name, refer to this person as the artist or architect. Guidelines for Analysis of Art · Formal Analysis Paper Examples · Guidelines for Writing Art History Research Papers · Oral Report Guidelines.