It is considered to be one of the best examples of the literary nonsense genre. One of the best-known and most popular works of English-language fiction, its narrative, structure, characters and imagery have been enormously influential in popular culture and literature, especially in the fantasy genre. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland was published in It was inspired when, three years earlier on 4 July,  Lewis Carroll and the Reverend Robinson Duckworth rowed up the River Isis in a boat with three young girls.
This day was known as the " golden afternoon ,"  prefaced in the novel as a poem. The poem might be a confusion or even another Alice-tale, for it turns out that particular day was cool, cloudy and rainy. The journey began at Folly Bridge , Oxford and ended five miles 8 km away in the Oxfordshire village of Godstow. During the trip Dodgson told the girls a story that featured a bored little girl named Alice who goes looking for an adventure.
The girls loved it, and Alice Liddell asked Dodgson to write it down for her. He began writing the manuscript of the story the next day, although that earliest version is lost to history. The girls and Dodgson took another boat trip a month later when he elaborated the plot to the story of Alice, and in November he began working on the manuscript in earnest. To add the finishing touches he researched natural history in connection with the animals presented in the book, and then had the book examined by other children — particularly those of George MacDonald.
Though Dodgson did add his own illustrations, he subsequently approached John Tenniel to illustrate the book for publication, telling him that the story had been well liked by children. Before Alice received her copy, Dodgson was already preparing it for publication and expanding the 15,word original to 27, words,  most notably adding the episodes about the Cheshire Cat and the Mad Tea Party.
Chapter One — Down the Rabbit Hole : Alice , a seven-year-old girl, is feeling bored and drowsy while sitting on the riverbank with her elder sister. She notices a talking, clothed white rabbit with a pocket watch run past. She follows it down a rabbit hole where she suddenly falls a long way to a curious hall with many locked doors of all sizes.
She finds a little key to a door too small for her to fit through, but through it, she sees an attractive garden. She then discovers a bottle on a table labelled "DRINK ME," the contents of which cause her to shrink too small to reach the key which she had left on the table. Chapter Two — The Pool of Tears : The chapter opens with Alice growing to such a tremendous size that her head hits the ceiling.
Unhappy, Alice begins to cry and her tears literally flood the hallway. Shrinking down again due to a fan she had picked up, Alice swims through her own tears and meets a mouse , who is swimming as well. Alice, thinking he may be a French mouse, tries to make small talk with him in elementary French.
Chapter Three — The Caucus Race and a Long Tale : The sea of tears becomes crowded with other animals and birds that have been swept away by the rising waters. Alice and the other animals convene on the bank and the question among them is how to get dry again. Mouse gives them a very dry lecture on William the Conqueror. A dodo decides that the best thing to dry them off would be a Caucus-Race, which consists of everyone running in a circle with no clear winner. Alice eventually frightens all the animals away, unwittingly, by talking about her moderately ferocious cat.
Mistaking her for his maidservant , Mary Ann, Rabbit orders Alice to go into the house and retrieve them. Inside the house she finds another little bottle and drinks from it, immediately beginning to grow again. The horrified Rabbit orders his gardener, Bill the Lizard , to climb on the roof and go down the chimney.
Outside, Alice hears the voices of animals that have gathered to gawk at her giant arm. The crowd hurls pebbles at her, which turn into little cakes. Alice eats them, and they reduce her again in size. Chapter Five — Advice from a Caterpillar : Alice comes upon a mushroom and sitting on it is a blue caterpillar smoking a hookah. Caterpillar questions Alice, who begins to admit to her current identity crisis, compounded by her inability to remember a poem.
Before crawling away, the caterpillar tells Alice that one side of the mushroom will make her taller and the other side will make her shorter. She breaks off two pieces from the mushroom. One side makes her shrink smaller than ever, while another causes her neck to grow high into the trees, where a pigeon mistakes her for a serpent.
With some effort, Alice brings herself back to her normal height. She stumbles upon a small estate and uses the mushroom to reach a more appropriate height. Chapter Six — Pig and Pepper : A fish- footman has an invitation for the Duchess of the house, which he delivers to a frog-footman. Alice observes this transaction and, after a perplexing conversation with the frog, lets herself into the house. The Duchess's cook is throwing dishes and making a soup that has too much pepper, which causes Alice, the Duchess, and her baby but not the cook or grinning Cheshire Cat to sneeze violently.
Alice is given the baby by the Duchess and, to Alice's surprise, the baby turns into a pig. The Cheshire Cat appears in a tree, directing her to the March Hare 's house. He disappears but his grin remains behind to float on its own in the air prompting Alice to remark that she has often seen a cat without a grin but never a grin without a cat. Chapter Seven — A Mad Tea-Party : Alice becomes a guest at a "mad" tea party along with the March Hare , the Hatter , and a very tired Dormouse , who falls asleep frequently only to be violently awakened moments later by the March Hare and the Hatter.
The characters give Alice many riddles and stories, including the famous " why is a raven like a writing desk? Alice becomes insulted and tired of being bombarded with riddles and she leaves claiming that it was the stupidest tea party that she had ever been to. Chapter Eight — The Queen's Croquet Ground : Alice leaves the tea party and enters the garden where she comes upon three living playing cards painting the white roses on a rose tree red because The Queen of Hearts hates white roses.
A procession of more cards, kings and queens and even the White Rabbit enters the garden. Alice then meets the King and Queen. The Queen, a figure difficult to please, introduces her signature phrase "Off with his head! Alice is invited or some might say ordered to play a game of croquet with the Queen and the rest of her subjects but the game quickly descends into chaos.
Live flamingos are used as mallets and hedgehogs as balls and Alice once again meets the Cheshire Cat. The Queen of Hearts then orders the Cat to be beheaded, only to have her executioner complain that this is impossible since the head is all that can be seen of him. Because the cat belongs to the Duchess, the Queen is prompted to release the Duchess from prison to resolve the matter. She ruminates on finding morals in everything around her.
The Queen of Hearts dismisses her on the threat of execution and she introduces Alice to the Gryphon , who takes her to the Mock Turtle. The Mock Turtle is very sad, even though he has no sorrow. He tries to tell his story about how he used to be a real turtle in school, which the Gryphon interrupts so they can play a game. Chapter Eleven — Who Stole the Tarts? The jury is composed of various animals, including Bill the Lizard , the White Rabbit is the court's trumpeter, and the judge is the King of Hearts.
During the proceedings, Alice finds that she is steadily growing larger. The dormouse scolds Alice and tells her she has no right to grow at such a rapid pace and take up all the air. Alice scoffs and calls the dormouse's accusation ridiculous because everyone grows and she cannot help it. Meanwhile, witnesses at the trial include the Hatter, who displeases and frustrates the King through his indirect answers to the questioning, and the Duchess's cook.
Chapter Twelve — Alice's Evidence : Alice is then called up as a witness. She accidentally knocks over the jury box with the animals inside them and the King orders the animals be placed back into their seats before the trial continues. The King and Queen order Alice to be gone, citing Rule 42 "All persons more than a mile high to leave the court" , but Alice disputes their judgement and refuses to leave. She argues with the King and Queen of Hearts over the ridiculous proceedings, eventually refusing to hold her tongue, only to say, "It's not that I was the one who stole the tarts in the first place", in the process.
Finally, the Queen confirms that Alice was the culprit responsible for stealing the tarts after all which automatically pardons the Knave of Hearts of his charges , and shouts, "Off with her head! Alice's sister wakes her up from a dream, brushing what turns out to be some leaves and not a shower of playing cards from Alice's face. Alice leaves her sister on the bank to imagine all the curious happenings for herself.
Alice Liddell herself is there, while Carroll is caricatured as the Dodo because Dodgson stuttered when he spoke, he sometimes pronounced his last name as Dodo-Dodgson. Gardner has suggested that the Hatter is a reference to Theophilus Carter , a furniture dealer known in Oxford , and that Tenniel apparently drew the Hatter to resemble Carter, on a suggestion of Carroll's. These are the Liddell sisters: Elsie is L. The Mock Turtle speaks of a drawling-master, "an old conger eel," who came once a week to teach "Drawling, Stretching, and Fainting in Coils.
The children did, in fact, learn well; Alice Liddell, for one, produced a number of skilful watercolours. The Mock Turtle also sings "Turtle Soup. Martin Gardner , along with other scholars, have shown the book to be filled with many parodies of Victorian popular culture, suggesting it belongs in spirit with W. Gilbert and Alfred Cellier 's Topsyturveydom. Most of the book's adventures may have been based on or influenced by people, situations, and buildings in Oxford and at Christ Church.
For example, the "Rabbit Hole" symbolised the actual stairs in the back of the Christ Church's main hall. A carving of a griffon and rabbit, as seen in Ripon Cathedral , where Carroll's father was a canon, may have provided inspiration for the tale. In the eighth chapter, three cards are painting the roses on a rose tree red, because they had accidentally planted a white-rose tree that The Queen of Hearts hates.
Red roses symbolised the English House of Lancaster , while white roses symbolised their rival House of York , thus the wars between them were the Wars of the Roses. While the book has remained in print and continually inspires new adaptations, the cultural material from which it draws has become largely specialized knowledge. Dr Leon Coward asserts the book 'suffers' from "readings which reflect today's fascination with postmodernism and psychology, rather than delving into an historically informed interpretation," and speculates that this has been partly driven by audiences encountering the narrative through a 'second-hand' source, explaining "our impressions of the original text are based on a multiplicity of reinterpretations.
We don't necessarily realise we're missing anything in understanding the original product, because we're usually never dealing with the original product. It has been suggested by several people, including Martin Gardner and Selwyn Goodacre,  that Dodgson had an interest in the French language, choosing to make references and puns about it in the story.
It is most likely that these are references to French lessons—a common feature of a Victorian middle-class girl's upbringing. For example, in the second chapter Alice posits that the mouse may be French. Pat's "Digging for apples" could be a cross-language pun , as pomme de terre literally; "apple of the earth" means potato and pomme means apple. In the second chapter, Alice initially addresses the mouse as "O Mouse", based on her memory of the noun declensions "in her brother's Latin Grammar , 'A mouse — of a mouse — to a mouse — a mouse — O mouse!
The sixth case, mure ablative is absent from Alice's recitation. Nilson has plausibly suggested that Alice's missing ablative is a pun on her father Henry Liddell's work on the standard A Greek-English Lexicon since ancient Greek does not have an ablative case. Further, Mousa meaning muse was a standard model noun in Greek books of the time in paradigms of the first declension, short-alpha noun.
As Carroll was a mathematician at Christ Church, it has been suggested that there are many references and mathematical concepts in both this story and Through the Looking-Glass. Carina Garland notes how the world is "expressed via representations of food and appetite", naming Alice's frequent desire for consumption of both food and words , her 'Curious Appetites'.
After the riddle "Why is a raven like a writing-desk? Nina Auerbach discusses how the novel revolves around eating and drinking which "motivates much of her [Alice's] behaviour", for the story is essentially about things "entering and leaving her mouth". The manuscript was illustrated by Dodgson himself who added 37 illustrations—printed in a facsimile edition in The first print run was destroyed or sold to the United States  at Carroll's request because he was dissatisfied with the quality.
The book was reprinted and published in John Tenniel 's illustrations of Alice do not portray the real Alice Liddell , who had dark hair and a short fringe. The binding for the Appleton Alice was identical to the Macmillan Alice , except for the publisher's name at the foot of the spine. The title page of the Appleton Alice was an insert cancelling the original Macmillan title page of , and bearing the New York publisher's imprint and the date The entire print run sold out quickly.
Alice was a publishing sensation, beloved by children and adults alike. The book is commonly referred to by the abbreviated title Alice in Wonderland , which has been popularised by the numerous stage, film and television adaptations of the story produced over the years. The following list is a timeline of major publication events related to Alice's Adventures in Wonderland :.
The book Alice in Wonderland failed to be named in an poll of the publishing season's most popular children's stories. However, many newspapers at the time declared the novel "exquisitely wild, fantastic, [and] impossible". In , Robert McCrum named the tale "one of the best loved in the English canon", and called it "perhaps the greatest, possibly most influential, and certainly the most world-famous Victorian English fiction".
It helped to replace stiff Victorian didacticism with a looser, sillier, nonsense style that reverberated through the works of language-loving 20th-century authors as different as James Joyce, Douglas Adams and Dr. The blank-faced little girl made famous by John Tenniel's original illustrations has become a cultural inkblot we can interpret in any way we like.
Alice and the rest of Wonderland continue to inspire or influence many other works of art to this day,  sometimes indirectly via the Disney movie , for example. References, homages, reworkings and derivative works can be found in many works of literature, film, theatre, visual art, music, and games such as playing cards. The book has inspired numerous film and television adaptations which have multiplied as the original work is now in the public domain in all jurisdictions.
The following list is of direct adaptations of Adventures in Wonderland sometimes merging it with Through the Looking-Glass , not other sequels or works otherwise inspired by the works such as Tim Burton 's film Alice in Wonderland :. Alice in Wonderland — was a comic strip adaptation drawn by Edward D.
At the close of this chapter, she is swimming desperately in a pool of her own tears, alongside a mouse and other chattering creatures that have suddenly, somehow, appeared. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland is full of parody and satire. The mouse offers to dry the other creatures and Alice by telling them a very dry history of England.
Then, Carroll attacks politics: the Dodo organizes a Caucus-race, a special race in which every participant wins a prize. Alice then learns the mouse's sad tale as Carroll's editor narrates it on the page in the shape of a mouse's very narrow, S-shaped tail. The assembled, unearthly creatures cannot accept ordinary language, and so Alice experiences, again, absolute bafflement; this is linguistic and semantic disaster.
Indeed, much of the humor of this chapter is based on Alice's reactions to the collapse of three above-ground assumptions: predictable growth, an absolute distinction between animals and humans, and an identity that remains constant. We might also add to the concept of a constancy of identity a conformity of word usage. But in Wonderland, Alice's previous identity and the very concept of a permanent identity has repeatedly been destroyed, just as the principles of above-ground are contradicted everywhere; here in Wonderland, such things as space, size, and even arithmetic are shown to have no consistent laws.
In Chapter IV, the confusion of identity continues. The White Rabbit insists that Alice fetch him his gloves and his fan. Somehow, he thinks that Alice is his servant, and Alice, instead of objecting to his confusion, passively accepts her new role, just as she would obey an adult ordering her about above-ground. On this day when everything has gone wrong, she feels absolutely defeated.
In the rabbit's house, Alice finds and drinks another growth potion. This time, however, she becomes so enormous that she fills up the room so entirely that she can't get out. These continuing changes in size illustrate her confused, rapid identity crisis and her continuous perplexity. After repulsing the rabbit's manservant, young Bill, a Lizard who is trying to evict her , Alice notices that pebbles that are being thrown at her through a window are turning into cakes.
Upon eating one of them, she shrinks until she is small enough to escape the rabbit's house and hide in a thick wood. In Chapter V, "Advice From a Caterpillar," Alice meets a rude Caterpillar; pompously and dogmatically, he states that she must keep her temper — which is even more confusing to her for she is a little irritable because she simply cannot make any sense in this world of Wonderland.
Alice then becomes more polite, but the Caterpillar only sharpens his already very short, brusque replies. In Wonderland, there are obviously no conventional rules of etiquette. Thus, Alice's attempt at politeness and the observance of social niceties are still frustrated attempts of hers to react as well as she can to very unconventional behavior—at least, it's certainly unconventional according to the rules that she learned above-ground.
Later, Alice suffers another bout of "giraffe's neck" from nibbling one side of the mushroom that the Caterpillar was sitting on. The effect of this spurt upward causes her to be mistaken for an egg-eating serpent by an angry, vicious pigeon. The latter three are literally trapped although they don't know it in a time-warp — trapped in a perpetual time when tea is being forever served. Life is one long tea-party, and this episode is Carroll's assault on the notion of time. At the tea-party, it is always teatime; the Mad Hatter's watch tells the day of the year, but not the time since it is always six o'clock.
At this point, it is important that you notice a key aspect of Wonderland; here, all these creatures treat Alice and her reactions as though she is insane — and as though they are sane! In addition, when they are not condescending to her or severely criticizing her, the creatures continually contradict her. And Alice passively presumes the fault to be hers — in almost every case — because all of the creatures act as though their madness is normal and not at all unusual.
It is the logical Alice who is the queer one. The chapter ends with Alice at last entering the garden by eating more of the mushroom that the Caterpillar was sitting on. Alice is now about a foot tall. Alice meets the sovereigns of Wonderland, who display a perversely hilarious rudeness not matched by anyone except possibly by the old screaming Duchess.
The garden is inhabited by playing cards with arms and legs and heads ,who are ruled over by the barbarous Queen of Hearts. The Queen's constant refrain and response to seemingly all situations is: "Off with their heads! Alice's confusion now turns to fear. Then she meets the ugly Duchess again, as well as the White Rabbit, the Cheshire-Cat, and a Gryphon introduces her to a Mock Turtle, who sings her a sad tale of his mock empty education; then the Mock Turtle teaches her and the Gryphon a dance called the 'Lobster-Quadrille.
Here, Alice plays a heroic role at the trial, and she emerges from Wonderland and awakens to reality. The last two chapters represent the overthrow of Wonderland and Alice's triumphant rebellion against the mayhem and madness that she experienced while she was lost, for awhile, in the strange world of Wonderland.
This story is characterized, first of all, by Alice's unthinking, irrational, and heedless jumping down the rabbit-hole, an act which is at once superhuman and beyond human experience — but Alice does it. And once we accept this premise, we are ready for the rest of the absurdities of Wonderland and Alice's attempts to understand it and, finally, to escape from it. Confusion begins almost immediately because Alice tries to use her world of knowledge from the adult world above-ground in order to understand this new world.
Wonderland, however, is a lawless world of deepest, bizarre dream unconsciousness, and Alice's journey through it is a metaphorical search for experience. What she discovers in her dream, though, is a more meaningful and terrifying world than most conscious acts of intelligence would ever lead her to. Hence, "Who in the world am I? Throughout the story, Alice is confronted with the problem of shifting identity, as well as being confronted with the anarchy and by the cruelty of Wonderland.
When Alice physically shrinks in size, she is never really small enough to hide from the disagreeable creatures that she meets; yet when she grows to adult or to even larger size, she is still not large enough to command authority. And "poor Alice" is on the verge of tears most of the time.
When she rarely prepares to laugh, she is usually checked by the morbid, humorless types of creatures whom she encounters in Wonderland. Not even the smiling Cheshire-Cat is kind to her. Such a hostile breakdown of the ordinary world is never funny to the child, however comic it might appear to adults.
But then Wonderland would not be so amusing to us except in terms of its sheer, unabated madness. One of the central concerns of Alice is the subject of growing up — the anxieties and the mysteries of personal identity as one matures. When Alice finds her neck elongated, everything, in her words, becomes "queer"; again, she is uncertain who she is.
As is the case with most children, Alice's identity depends upon her control of her body. Until now, Alice's life has been very structured; now her life shifts; it becomes fragmented until it ends with a nightmarish awakening.
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|Book report about alice in wonderland||Nilson has plausibly suggested that Alice's missing ablative is a pun on her father Henry Liddell's work on the standard A Greek-English Lexicon since ancient Greek does not have an ablative case. In the eighth chapter, three cards are painting the roses on a rose tree red, because they had accidentally planted a white-rose tree that The Queen of Hearts hates. Thru the Mirror animated short " White Rabbit " song Jabberwocky film Jabberwocky film Dungeonland module Dreamchild film The Hunting of the Snark musical Disney franchise. These works range from fairly faithful adaptations to those that use the story as a basis for new works. Quite Interesting Ltd.|
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|Book report about alice in wonderland||The latter three are literally trapped although they don't know it in a time-warp — trapped in a perpetual time when tea is being forever served. One feels that Carroll is never more at home than when he is playing, punning, or otherwise messing around with the English tongue. Elizabeth Swados wrote the book, lyrics, and music. When Alice physically shrinks in size, she is never really small enough to hide from the disagreeable creatures that she meets; yet when she grows to adult or to even larger size, she is still not large enough to command authority. References, homages, reworkings and derivative works can be found in many works of literature, film, theatre, visual art, music, and games such as playing cards. Performed on a bare stage with the actors in modern dress, the play is a petrarch essay adaptation, with song styles ranging the globe. Kuekes and written by Olive Ray Scott.|
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|Boston college resume book||Actress Eva Le Gallienne famously adapted both Alice books for the stage in ; this production has been revived in New York in and Views Read Edit View history. Throughout the novel, Alice is filled with unconscious feelings of morbidity, physical disgrace, unfairness, and bizarre feelings about bodily functions. She realizes that she has been holding the White Rabbit's lost white gloves and fan — therefore, it must be the magic of the fan that is causing her to shrink to almost nothingness. Marie Claire.|
|Top application letter editor services ca||This time, however, she becomes so enormous that she fills up the room so entirely that she can't get out. The Mock Turtle speaks of a drawling-master, "an old conger eel," who came once a week to teach "Drawling, Stretching, and Fainting in Coils. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland is one of the most famous and enduring children's classics. She wishes that she could fold herself up like a telescope and enter. What she discovers in her dream, though, is a more meaningful and terrifying world than most conscious acts of intelligence would ever lead her to. The horrified Rabbit orders his gardener, Bill the Lizardto climb on the roof and go down the chimney. It was inspired when, three years earlier on 4 July,  Lewis Carroll and the Reverend Robinson Duckworth rowed up the River Isis in a boat with three young girls.|
The characters are one-of-a-kind, and tales, Dr. It has the potential to remind the reader of their. In addition to the delightfully via email. This helps me to stay it has a very unique and unparalleled story line reader interested the whole time. This early introduction to fairy eccentric plot, there is some. I find it more enthralling than most stories because of is a creatively entertaining novel. Just like Alice, I find open to all the wonderful possibilities life has to offer, just the experience of desire. Mushrooms, hookahs, and the mysterious it an excellent practice to and the other characters ingest throughout the book could be. I would recommend this timeless classic to anyone because it symbolism thrown in. For instance, the garden is thought to symbolize either the this is one that I enjoy reading even more as.The main character in this novel, a real girl who had a dream that helped readers enter the magical world of Wonderland. Alice is a kind-hearted girl with a. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, widely beloved British children's book by Lewis Carroll, published in and illustrated by John Tenniel. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll is a story about Alice who falls down a rabbit hole and lands into a fantasy world that is.