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Report on paper harlem renaissance research paper topics

Report on paper

Specific editorial requirements for submission of a manuscript will always supercede instructions in these general guidelines. Select an informative title as illustrated in the examples in your writing portfolio example package. Include the name s and address es of all authors, and date submitted. An abstract is a concise single paragraph summary of completed work or work in progress. In a minute or less a reader can learn the rationale behind the study, general approach to the problem, pertinent results, and important conclusions or new questions.

Write your summary after the rest of the paper is completed. After all, how can you summarize something that is not yet written? Economy of words is important throughout any paper, but especially in an abstract.

However, use complete sentences and do not sacrifice readability for brevity. You can keep it concise by wording sentences so that they serve more than one purpose. For example, "In order to learn the role of protein synthesis in early development of the sea urchin, newly fertilized embryos were pulse-labeled with tritiated leucine, to provide a time course of changes in synthetic rate, as measured by total counts per minute cpm.

The writer can now go directly to summarizing the results. Summarize the study, including the following elements in any abstract. Try to keep the first two items to no more than one sentence each. The purpose of an introduction is to aquaint the reader with the rationale behind the work, with the intention of defending it. It places your work in a theoretical context, and enables the reader to understand and appreciate your objectives.

The abstract is the only text in a research paper to be written without using paragraphs in order to separate major points. Approaches vary widely, however for our studies the following approach can produce an effective introduction. This should be the easiest section to write, but many students misunderstand the purpose.

The objective is to document all specialized materials and general procedures, so that another individual may use some or all of the methods in another study or judge the scientific merit of your work. It is not to be a step by step description of everything you did, nor is a methods section a set of instructions.

In particular, it is not supposed to tell a story. By the way, your notebook should contain all of the information that you need for this section. The purpose of a results section is to present and illustrate your findings. Make this section a completely objective report of the results, and save all interpretation for the discussion. IMPORTANT: You must clearly distinguish material that would normally be included in a research article from any raw data or other appendix material that would not be published.

In fact, such material should not be submitted at all unless requested by the instructor. The objective here is to provide an interpretation of your results and support for all of your conclusions, using evidence from your experiment and generally accepted knowledge, if appropriate. The significance of findings should be clearly described.

Interpret your data in the discussion in appropriate depth. This means that when you explain a phenomenon you must describe mechanisms that may account for the observation. If your results differ from your expectations, explain why that may have happened. If your results agree, then describe the theory that the evidence supported. It is never appropriate to simply state that the data agreed with expectations, and let it drop at that. The biggest mistake that students make in discussions is to present a superficial interpretation that more or less re-states the results.

It is necessary to suggest why results came out as they did, focusing on the mechanisms behind the observations. Please note that in the introductory laboratory course, you will not be required to properly document sources of all of your information. One reason is that your major source of information is this website, and websites are inappropriate as primary sources. Second, it is problematic to provide a hundred students with equal access to potential reference materials.

You may nevertheless find outside sources, and you should cite any articles that the instructor provides or that you find for yourself. Caprette caprette rice. Laboratory Studies. Laboratory Methods. Resources for learning technical writing Before you begin your first writing assignment, please consult all of the following resources, in order to gain the most benefit from the experience.

General form of a typical research article Specific guidelines if any for the assignment — see the writeups on individual lab studies McMillan, VE. Martin's, ISBN REQUIRED for Bioc , , recommended for other science courses that include writing Writing portfolio examples pdf As you polish up your writing skills please make use of the following resources Instructor feedback on previous assignments Common errors in student research papers Selected writing rules somewhat less serious than the other resources For Biosciences majors the general guidelines apply to future course work, as can be seen by examining the guidelines for the advanced experimental sciences research paper Bioc General form of a research paper An objective of organizing a research paper is to allow people to read your work selectively.

General style Specific editorial requirements for submission of a manuscript will always supercede instructions in these general guidelines. To make a paper readable Print or type using a 12 point standard font, such as Times, Geneva, Bookman, Helvetica, etc. Stay focused on the research topic of the paper Use paragraphs to separate each important point except for the abstract Indent the first line of each paragraph Present your points in logical order Use present tense to report well accepted facts - for example, 'the grass is green' Use past tense to describe specific results - for example, 'When weed killer was applied, the grass was brown' Avoid informal wording, don't address the reader directly, and don't use jargon, slang terms, or superlatives Avoid use of superfluous pictures - include only those figures necessary to presenting results Title Page Select an informative title as illustrated in the examples in your writing portfolio example package.

Abstract The summary should be two hundred words or less. See the examples in the writing portfolio package. General intent An abstract is a concise single paragraph summary of completed work or work in progress. Writing an abstract Write your summary after the rest of the paper is completed. General intent The purpose of an introduction is to aquaint the reader with the rationale behind the work, with the intention of defending it.

Writing an introduction The abstract is the only text in a research paper to be written without using paragraphs in order to separate major points. Describe the importance significance of the study - why was this worth doing in the first place? Provide a broad context. Defend the model - why did you use this particular organism or system?

What are its advantages? You might comment on its suitability from a theoretical point of view as well as indicate practical reasons for using it. Provide a rationale. State your specific hypothesis es or objective s , and describe the reasoning that led you to select them. Very briefy describe the experimental design and how it accomplished the stated objectives. Style: Use past tense except when referring to established facts.

After all, the paper will be submitted after all of the work is completed. Organize your ideas, making one major point with each paragraph. If you make the four points listed above, you will need a minimum of four paragraphs. Present background information only as needed in order support a position. The reader does not want to read everything you know about a subject. As always, pay attention to spelling, clarity and appropriateness of sentences and phrases.

Materials and Methods There is no specific page limit, but a key concept is to keep this section as concise as you possibly can. People will want to read this material selectively. The reader may only be interested in one formula or part of a procedure. Materials and methods may be reported under separate subheadings within this section or can be incorporated together. General intent This should be the easiest section to write, but many students misunderstand the purpose.

Writing a materials and methods section Materials: Describe materials separately only if the study is so complicated that it saves space this way. Include specialized chemicals, biological materials, and any equipment or supplies that are not commonly found in laboratories.

It should be concise and to the point. For the research report, the student is basically delving into a topic, organizing the material he has found and sharing what he has learned in his own words. He will still do a fair amount of research and his paper should still include some summary information. However, the writer will also offer his thoughts on what he has learned, and he will use quotes and authoritative opinions to back up his claims. This means that the student will also need to use some form of citation to show from where their quotes and support material have come, which will add to the complexity of this assignment.

These papers should take anywhere from 6 weeks to several months to complete. A research paper must include a thesis statement which causes the student to form and defend an opinion about the material. The completed paper should be clear, comprehensive and at least 6 to 8 pages in length. It should touch on why he chose the topic and how it affects the writer as well as thoroughly explain what he has found out about the subject.

As the student progresses, you can add to the length requirements of the research report, increase the frequency of the assignment or advance the complexity of the material being studied. However, around 7th and 8th grade, you can also assign a hybrid research project. The hybrid project will include all the components of a research report, but will add in a page or so where the student explains how the material affected him.

This type of paper will ease the student into writing the more complex research paper. So, far in our homeschool, we have done several mini-research papers as a part of our science and history studies. As we dig further into the middle school years, I plan on increasing the difficulty and length of these assignments, so that by the time high school hits, we are ready to begin to tackle our first research paper!

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If your results agree, then describe the theory that the evidence supported. It is never appropriate to simply state that the data agreed with expectations, and let it drop at that. The biggest mistake that students make in discussions is to present a superficial interpretation that more or less re-states the results.

It is necessary to suggest why results came out as they did, focusing on the mechanisms behind the observations. Please note that in the introductory laboratory course, you will not be required to properly document sources of all of your information. One reason is that your major source of information is this website, and websites are inappropriate as primary sources.

Second, it is problematic to provide a hundred students with equal access to potential reference materials. You may nevertheless find outside sources, and you should cite any articles that the instructor provides or that you find for yourself.

Caprette caprette rice. Laboratory Studies. Laboratory Methods. Resources for learning technical writing Before you begin your first writing assignment, please consult all of the following resources, in order to gain the most benefit from the experience.

General form of a typical research article Specific guidelines if any for the assignment — see the writeups on individual lab studies McMillan, VE. Martin's, ISBN REQUIRED for Bioc , , recommended for other science courses that include writing Writing portfolio examples pdf As you polish up your writing skills please make use of the following resources Instructor feedback on previous assignments Common errors in student research papers Selected writing rules somewhat less serious than the other resources For Biosciences majors the general guidelines apply to future course work, as can be seen by examining the guidelines for the advanced experimental sciences research paper Bioc General form of a research paper An objective of organizing a research paper is to allow people to read your work selectively.

General style Specific editorial requirements for submission of a manuscript will always supercede instructions in these general guidelines. To make a paper readable Print or type using a 12 point standard font, such as Times, Geneva, Bookman, Helvetica, etc. Stay focused on the research topic of the paper Use paragraphs to separate each important point except for the abstract Indent the first line of each paragraph Present your points in logical order Use present tense to report well accepted facts - for example, 'the grass is green' Use past tense to describe specific results - for example, 'When weed killer was applied, the grass was brown' Avoid informal wording, don't address the reader directly, and don't use jargon, slang terms, or superlatives Avoid use of superfluous pictures - include only those figures necessary to presenting results Title Page Select an informative title as illustrated in the examples in your writing portfolio example package.

Abstract The summary should be two hundred words or less. See the examples in the writing portfolio package. General intent An abstract is a concise single paragraph summary of completed work or work in progress. Writing an abstract Write your summary after the rest of the paper is completed. General intent The purpose of an introduction is to aquaint the reader with the rationale behind the work, with the intention of defending it. Writing an introduction The abstract is the only text in a research paper to be written without using paragraphs in order to separate major points.

Describe the importance significance of the study - why was this worth doing in the first place? Provide a broad context. Defend the model - why did you use this particular organism or system? What are its advantages? You might comment on its suitability from a theoretical point of view as well as indicate practical reasons for using it. Provide a rationale.

State your specific hypothesis es or objective s , and describe the reasoning that led you to select them. Very briefy describe the experimental design and how it accomplished the stated objectives. Style: Use past tense except when referring to established facts. After all, the paper will be submitted after all of the work is completed.

Organize your ideas, making one major point with each paragraph. If you make the four points listed above, you will need a minimum of four paragraphs. Present background information only as needed in order support a position. The reader does not want to read everything you know about a subject.

As always, pay attention to spelling, clarity and appropriateness of sentences and phrases. Materials and Methods There is no specific page limit, but a key concept is to keep this section as concise as you possibly can. People will want to read this material selectively. The reader may only be interested in one formula or part of a procedure. Materials and methods may be reported under separate subheadings within this section or can be incorporated together.

General intent This should be the easiest section to write, but many students misunderstand the purpose. Writing a materials and methods section Materials: Describe materials separately only if the study is so complicated that it saves space this way. Include specialized chemicals, biological materials, and any equipment or supplies that are not commonly found in laboratories. Do not include commonly found supplies such as test tubes, pipet tips, beakers, etc.

If use of a specific type of equipment, a specific enzyme, or a culture from a particular supplier is critical to the success of the experiment, then it and the source should be singled out, otherwise no. Materials may be reported in a separate paragraph or else they may be identified along with your procedures.

In biosciences we frequently work with solutions - refer to them by name and describe completely, including concentrations of all reagents, and pH of aqueous solutions, solvent if non-aqueous. Methods: See the examples in the writing portfolio package Report the methodology not details of each procedure that employed the same methodology Describe the mehodology completely, including such specifics as temperatures, incubation times, etc.

To be concise, present methods under headings devoted to specific procedures or groups of procedures Generalize - report how procedures were done, not how they were specifically performed on a particular day. If well documented procedures were used, report the procedure by name, perhaps with reference, and that's all. For example, the Bradford assay is well known. You need not report the procedure in full - just that you used a Bradford assay to estimate protein concentration, and identify what you used as a standard.

Style: It is awkward or impossible to use active voice when documenting methods without using first person, which would focus the reader's attention on the investigator rather than the work. Therefore when writing up the methods most authors use third person passive voice. Use normal prose in this and in every other section of the paper — avoid informal lists, and use complete sentences. What to avoid Materials and methods are not a set of instructions.

Omit all explanatory information and background - save it for the discussion. Omit information that is irrelevant to a third party, such as what color ice bucket you used, or which individual logged in the data. Results The page length of this section is set by the amount and types of data to be reported.

Continue to be concise, using figures and tables, if appropriate, to present results most effectively. See recommendations for content, below. General intent The purpose of a results section is to present and illustrate your findings. Writing a results section IMPORTANT: You must clearly distinguish material that would normally be included in a research article from any raw data or other appendix material that would not be published.

Content Summarize your findings in text and illustrate them, if appropriate, with figures and tables. In text, describe each of your results, pointing the reader to observations that are most relevant. Provide a context, such as by describing the question that was addressed by making a particular observation.

Describe results of control experiments and include observations that are not presented in a formal figure or table, if appropriate. Analyze your data, then prepare the analyzed converted data in the form of a figure graph , table, or in text form.

What to avoid Do not discuss or interpret your results, report background information, or attempt to explain anything. Never include raw data or intermediate calculations in a research paper. Do not present the same data more than once. Text should complement any figures or tables, not repeat the same information.

Please do not confuse figures with tables - there is a difference. Style As always, use past tense when you refer to your results, and put everything in a logical order. In text, refer to each figure as "figure 1," "figure 2," etc.

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But, writing manually consumes quite a lot of time and research, and you may not end up getting any valuable data insights. Whatagraph is one of the tools that make it easy to create analytical reports since it offers analytical report templates for you. Cross-channel reporting template. Regardless of the method you choose, your analytical report should include the following:. To write a successful analytical report , make sure you follow these instructions:.

The first step to creating an analytical report is identifying the problem and the people affected by it. Make sure you describe the problem by including information on where it began, what techniques were used to solve it so far, and the effectiveness of them. A great example of an analytical report is one of student tardiness in a selected school.

In this case, we have a clearly defined problem. Finally, we list the methods used to fix the problem, one being a reward system, which was unsuccessful. You should also add one or two new methods to try instead. For example, a report done on a failed ad campaign may reveal that the success factor was determined by surveys conducted on a sample population. Analytical reports display a detailed analysis of the information collected through the research methods employed. As you know, the report was built to sort out a specific issue and decide on alternative methods to try.

So, it would help if you analyzed the success or failures of the solutions you tried in the first place. You may even find out that a combination of two methods brought you the most success. Lastly, your analytical report should include solution recommendations. And, it would help if you placed these solutions at the bottom of your report. Log in Try it free. Resources A collection of useful resources to help power up your performance monitoring and reporting flow. Thank you for subscribing!

It's great to feel loved. It can seem really hard to write a report, but it will be easier if you choose an original topic that you're passionate about. Once you've got your topic, do some research on it at the library and online, using reputable sources like encyclopedias, scholarly journals, and government websites. Use your research write a thesis statement that sums up the focus of your paper, then organize your notes into an outline that supports that thesis statement.

Finally, expand that outline into paragraph form. Read on for tips from our Education co-author on how to format your report! Did this summary help you? Yes No. Log in Social login does not work in incognito and private browsers. Please log in with your username or email to continue. No account yet? Create an account. Edit this Article. We use cookies to make wikiHow great. By using our site, you agree to our cookie policy.

Cookie Settings. Learn why people trust wikiHow. Download Article Explore this Article parts. Sample Reports. Related Articles. Article Summary. Sample Reports Sample Science Report. Sample Book Report. Part 1 of Read the report prompt or guidelines carefully. If your teacher, professor, or boss gave you guidelines for your report, make sure you read them thoroughly to make sure you understand the assignment.

Generally, the prompt will give you information such as whether your report should be informative or persuasive, who your audience should be, and any issues your report should address. If you have any questions about the assignment, speak up as soon as possible. Choose a topic you find interesting. If your report is about information technology , you could gather information about the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data or information.

If your assignment is to give a report on the historical events of the s in America, for example, you could focus your report on the way popular music reflected the events that occurred during that time. Try to pick a topic that is as specific as possible. Try to find one aspect of the topic that has a lot of supporting details. For instance, if you wanted to do your report on World Fairs, then you realize that there are way too many of them to talk about, you might choose one specific world fair, such as the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, to focus on.

Part 2 of Include a variety of reputable sources in your paper. If the report guidelines give you a number of sources to use, or a limit on how many of a specific type of source you can use, be sure to follow those guidelines carefully. Any sources you need should be authoritative, like books, newspapers, or scholarly articles written on the subject.

Sources can be divided into primary sources, like original written works, court records, and interviews, and secondary sources, like reference books and reviews. Databases, abstracts, and indexes are considered tertiary sources, and can be used to help you find primary and secondary sources for your report. They can help you find books, articles, and other credible sources. Often, a teacher will limit how many online sources you can use.

Use only scholarly sources if you do online research. Since anyone can write something and put it online, it can be hard sometimes to sift through all of the material on the internet to find authoritative sources. Examples of authoritative online sources include government websites, articles written by known experts, and publications in peer-reviewed journals that have been published online. Cross-reference your sources to find new material. You might find some new information that will help you have a better understanding of your subject.

Keep thorough notes as you research, including citation information. If you find something helpful in a book, article, or another source, write down everything you might want to remember for your report. Then, write down all of the information you can find on the source, including the author, the date of the publication, the page number, and the publisher. This will help you easily create your bibliography later, since the citation information will be listed right in your notes.

Use your research to help you craft a thesis statement. Use this theme to write a strong thesis statement for your report. Your thesis statement should summarize what you want to prove in your report for your reader, and all of the body paragraphs should tie back to this idea. However, if you're writing a persuasive report, the thesis should contain an argument that you will have to prove in the body of the essay.

Organize your notes into an outline. Begin with your thesis statement, then pick 3 or 4 major ideas related to your thesis statement that you will want to cover in your essay. Write down details from your notes that support each of those main ideas. You can create a straightforward list or make a concept map , depending on what makes the most sense to you.

Try to organize the information from your notes so it flows together logically. Part 3 of Format the report according to the guidelines you were given. It can be helpful to format the font, margins, and spacing of your report before you start writing it, rather than trying to go through and set it all up at the end. If there aren't any, opt for something classic, like point Times New Roman or Arial font, double-spaced lines, and 1 in 2. You may also need a title page, which should include the title of the report, your name, the date, and the person who requested the report.

State your thesis in the introduction. Your intro is where you introduce your topic and state your thesis. Your introductory paragraph should be engaging, since you want the reader to be interested in reading the rest of your report. You should provide some background information on your topic, then state your thesis so that the reader knows what the report is going to be about.

The three main halls of the PPIE were filled with modern creations of the day and were an excellent representation of the innovative spirit of the Progressive era. Start each paragraph in the body of the report with a topic sentence. The body paragraphs are where you state the evidence that supports your thesis. Each body paragraph consists of a topic sentence and evidence supporting the topic sentence.

The topic sentence introduces the main idea of the body paragraph and links the paragraph back to the thesis. Example topic sentence for Thesis 1: At the PPIE, the Court of the Universe was the heart of the exposition and represented the greatest achievements of man, as well as the meeting of the East and the West.

Support each topic sentence with evidence from your research. After you write your topic sentence in the body paragraph, provide evidence found in your research that supports your topic sentence. Incorporate this research using a mixture of paraphrases and direct quotes. On the other hand, a direct quote means using the exact words from the original source in quotation marks, with the author cited.

For the topic sentence listed above about the Court of the Universe, the body paragraph should go on to list the different exhibits found at the exhibit, as well as proving how the Court represented the meeting of the East and West. Use your sources to support your topic, but don't plagiarize. Always restate the information in your own words.

In most cases, you'll get in serious trouble if you just copy from your sources word-for-word. Also, be sure to cite each source as you use it, according to the formatting guidelines you were given. Follow your evidence with commentary explaining why it links to your thesis. Commentary is your own ideas about your topic and the evidence. Analyze the evidence to explain how it supports the ideas presented in your topic sentence, then clearly link it back to your thesis.

This helps the reader follow your train of thought, which makes your argument stronger. For a longer report, you may write more sentences for each piece of commentary. Summarize your research in the conclusion paragraph. This paragraph both summarizes your thesis again and provides your final thoughts on your topic.

Part 4 of Scan the report to make sure everything is included and makes sense. Also, look for whether your evidence supports your thesis [20] X Research source.