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Note: The format for this type of source depends on whether your source comes from a site with an associated newspaper. If the source does come from a site with an associated newspaper, leave the title of the article unformatted, but italicize the title of the newspaper. Title of Publication. Richards, C. Best music of Lana Del Rey sings lullabies about the end of America. Washington Post. On the other hand, if the source doesn't come from a site with an associated newspaper, italicize the title of the article, but leave the name of the site unformatted.
Name of publishing website. Jones, J. Why flats dominate Spain's housing market. It is not necessary to note that you have used an eBook or audiobook when the content is the same as a physical book. However, you should distinguish between the eBook or audiobook and the print version if the content is different or abridged, or if you would like to cite the narrator of an audiobook.
Title of book [eBook edition]. Title of book N. Narrator, Narr. URL if applicable. Title of dissertation or thesis Publication No. Database Name. Duis, J. Publication No. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. Note: An online dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia may be continuously updated and therefore not include a publication date like in the example below. Institution or organization name. Title of entry. In Title of reference work. In Merriam-Webster. Lastname ed.
Martin, M. McNeely Eds , Encyclopedia of big data. Note: If the dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia does not include an edition, simply skip that step. Title of dataset Version No. Grantmakers in the Arts. Give the name of the organization or individual followed by the date and the title.
If there is no title, in brackets, you should provide a brief explanation of what type of data is there and in what form it appears. Include the URL and the retrieval date if there is no publication date. If an interview is not retrievable in audio or print form, cite the interview only in the text not in the reference list and provide the month, day, and year in the text. If the interview transcript is published in an online periodical, like a magazine, cite the interview the same way you would cite the medium where it is published, as shown below:.
Schulman, M. Peter Dinklage is still punk rock. The New Yorker. If it is an audio file or transcript published in a database, credit the interviewee as the author and use the following model:. Paynter, W. Interview with Will Paynter [Interview].
When citing online lecture notes, be sure to provide the file format in brackets after the lecture title e. PowerPoint slides, Word document. Title of presentation [Lecture notes, PowerPoint slides, etc]. Smith, C. AI and machine learning demystified [PowerPoint slides]. Do not cite standard office software e. Word, Excel or programming languages. Provide references only for specialized software.
Title of software Version No. Maple companion Version 2. Cybernet Systems Co. E-mails are not included in the list of references, though you should parenthetically cite them in your main text:. Title of post [Online forum post]. Stine, R. Ask me anything! Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Tweet]. Site Name. Note : If the tweet includes images, videos, or links to other sources, indicate that information in brackets after the content description.
Also attempt to replicate emojis if possible. National Geographic [ NatGeo]. Tweets [Twitter profile]. MLA Style [ mlastyle]. Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Type of post]. Note: If the Facebook post includes images, videos, or links to other sources, indicate that information in brackets after the content description. Department of the Interior. Home [Facebook page]. Little River Canyon National Preserve n. BBC [ bbc]. Axelrod, A. A century later: The Treaty of Versailles and its rejection of racial equality.
Code Switch, NPR. Last Name, F. The basic in-text citation style for adding sources to the body of an APA style paper is to add the author and the date. There are a number of ways that can be done to aid in the readability and flow of the paper. However, the basic style for different authors types are listed in the table below.
Printable version of the basic in-text citation styles are available here:. Copyright by the American Psychological Association. Once introduced, use only the abbreviation for all mentions of the group author in the text of your paper. There are a number of ways that parenthetical and narrative citations can be added to the body of an APA style paper. Using variety helps with the readability and flow of the paper.
The following table provides a few examples of common ways parenthetical and narrative citations are used for quotes and paraphrases. For additional examples, see the following printable handouts:. Author's name is in text with the date immediately after the author's last name in parentheses. At the end of the sentence, add the page number is in parentheses. Use the abbreviation "p. Several studies report Multiple sources within the same parenthetical citation should be listed alphabetically by author.
Separate each citation with a semicolon. For more information about citing multiple words in the same citation, see Section 8. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge.
If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. In-text Citation Introduction What is an in-text citation? How do I create narrative or parenthetical citations? Additional Resources. This resource provides fundamental information about the basics of citations. Appropriate Level of Citations Created by APA - learn about how many references should be used in a paper and how many times to cite the same source in a paragraph. Paraphrasing This source provides the basics about paraphrasing, including the use of long paraphrases.
Quotations Created by APA - learn about creating quotations for short quotes, block quotes, quotes for sources without page number, and more! More Information For more information about parenthetical and narrative citations, see pages of the APA Manual 7th edition for further explanation and examples. In-text Citation Examples There are a number of ways that parenthetical and narrative citations can be added to the body of an APA style paper.
Description of Citation Type of Citation Explanation Example Quote with author's name in text with designated page numbers. Narrative Citation Author's name is in text with the date immediately after the author's last name in parentheses. Smith demonstrated how to "..
Paraphrasing with the author's name in text. Narrative Citation Author's name is in text with date in parentheses after the author's last name. Smith shared these facts, too. Paraphrasing with author's name in parentheses. Parenthetical Citation Add the author and date in parentheses.
This fact was also shared in other sources Smith, Source with 2 authors in text. Narrative Citation List both authors in text. Separate the authors with the word "and". Add the date in parentheses immediately after the last name of the second author.
Smith and Lee located Source with 2 authors in parentheses Parenthetical Citation List both authors and date in parentheses. Source with no author in parentheses. Parenthetical Citation Give the title of the work in place of the author. Abbreviate to a few words if the title is long and complicated. Italicize a book title, and use quotation marks around the title of the source is an article. This book is true Effective Management , This article is true "Effective Management," Quote from website or electronic source with no page numbers with author's name in parentheses.
Parenthetical Citation Include the author's name, the date, and the paragraph number, heading or section, or both in parentheses at the end of the sentence. Furthermore, the research " Sources with Multiple Authors.
American Red Cross. Tornadoes - How to stay safe. Make a plan. Ewoldt, J. Mayo Clinic. See more examples and details on APA's Webpage on a news website or consult the guide directly Section Weber, B. Canada's health inequalities between rich and poor exposed in new study. See more examples and details on APA's Whole website references or directly consult the guide Section 8. Looking for APA 6? On this page Blog posts Online media Webpages or website.
Author, A. YYYY, Month day. Content of the post up to 20 words. Site Name. When a web page does not list an individual author, it can usually be attributed to an organization or government. If this results in the author name being identical to the site name, omit the site name, as in the example below. In the in-text citation , put the title in quotation marks if it is in plain text in the reference list, or in italics if it is in italics in the reference list. Note that title case is used for the title here, unlike in the reference list.
Shorten the title to the first few words if necessary. If an online source is likely to change over time, it is recommended to include the date on which you accessed it. As social media posts are usually untitled, use the first 20 words of the post, in italics, as a title. Also include any relevant information about the type of post and any multimedia aspects e.
On some social media sites such as Twitter , users go by usernames instead of or in addition to their real names. In these cases, include an access date, because a profile will obviously change over time:. Note that the author can also be an organization. For example: American Psychological Association, When you quote or paraphrase a specific passage from a source, you need to indicate the location of the passage in your in-text citation.
If there are no page numbers e. Section headings can be shortened if necessary. Kindle location numbers should not be used in ebook citations , as they are unreliable. When no individual author name is listed, but the source can clearly be attributed to a specific organization—e. When no author at all can be determined—e. In the in-text citation, put the title in quotation marks if it appears in plain text in the reference list, and in italics if it appears in italics in the reference list.
Shorten it if necessary. APA Style usually does not require an access date. You never need to include one when citing journal articles , e-books , or other stable online sources. Enclose the title in double quotation marks when citing an article, web page or book chapter.
Italicize the title of periodicals, books, and reports. For example: Johnson, n. Usually the initial wouldn't be included in an in-text citation, unless it's there to distinguish between two authors with the same last name. Using a paragraph number is OK if there are no page numbers available, but make sure to include a period after "para. So, your citation would look like this:. I am using a speeches website American Rhetoric.
Many speeches might be uploaded at the same year on different days. You're right that it's necessary to distinguish between references that would otherwise be identical, but APA recommends doing this by adding a letter after the year in each in-text citation, and in the reference list. So your in-text citations would be American Rhetoric, a and American Rhetoric, b.
In the reference list, add the letter even in references that do include a full date, to ensure it's clear which source each in-text citation refers to. In your examples, the March date is "a" because it's earlier chronologically. This is the case even if you cite the other one first in the text. Say goodbye to inaccurate citations! Have a language expert improve your writing. Check your paper for plagiarism in 10 minutes. Do the check. Generate your APA citations for free!
APA Citation Generator. This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines. Use the buttons below to explore the format. What is your plagiarism score? Compare your paper with over 60 billion web pages and 30 million publications. Obama, B. Dorsey, J.
Tweets [Twitter profile]. What does an APA in-text citation for a website look like? When should I include an access date in an APA citation? How do I cite a source with an unknown author or publication date in APA? Is this article helpful? He writes and edits for Scribbr, and reads a lot of books in his spare time. Other students also liked. How to cite a webpage with no author, date, or title in APA Style Websites often have no author, date, or title.
APA provides guidelines for citing sources with missing information. Tankovska, , para 1? Thank you! Hi Mindy, Usually the initial wouldn't be included in an in-text citation, unless it's there to distinguish between two authors with the same last name. So, your citation would look like this: Tankovska, , para. Lobna March 8, at PM Hello. American Rhetoric, , March 3. Please let me know. Hi Lobna, You're right that it's necessary to distinguish between references that would otherwise be identical, but APA recommends doing this by adding a letter after the year in each in-text citation, and in the reference list.
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Title of the resource. Name of publishing website. The only exception is for the source doesn't come from version of the page, rather ERIC or that are only would cite the medium where after the article or source. Journal of Abnormal Eating, 8 or encyclopedia does not include. PARAGRAPHTitle of article. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. Title of Online Periodicaldocuments and consist of a. For this reason, the date organization or individual followed by and continuing education Doctoral dissertation. In Title of reference work. Title of the book.When citing a web page or online article in APA Style, the in-text citation. For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, , p. 14). For sources such as websites and e-books that have no. APA Citation Basics. When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of.