Social cognition is a psychological concept related with bullying. According to the concept, controlled and automatic human processes are different. Bullying is a controlled process because the bully uses force as they seek to prove domination over their peers. A bully can control the force they use on their peers to show domination Dosani, Threats and abuse are also controllable aspects of bullying. However, the effects on the victim are automatic processes.
An individual tends to feel scared and worried when threatened or abused. The second concept is the power imbalance. Power imbalance allows the bully to dominate the victim and show aggression over them. Bullying only takes place on an individual who is less powerful than the bully is. Bullies in schools do not threaten peers who seem strong or influential. Social status also presents a situation of power imbalance. According to Dosani, , members of the high social class mainly bully those of a lower social class.
Repetitive and intentional actions are another social psychology concept related with bullying. Bullies perform intentional actions with an aim of causing harm to the victim. The repetitive actions cause a victim to fear the bully and thus the process of bullying continues.
It is hard to fight bullying because some cases begin at home. Some incidents of bullying happen because of domestic violence. A bully develops the habit to dominate over their peers because of the violence used at their homes. For example, a person may develop a habit of bullying weak peers because one of their parents is violent Dosani, Therefore, it is challenging to stop bullying because it begins at homes. Authorities face a challenge with bullying because some reported incidents seem exaggerated Goldstein, Authorities who deal with bullying sometimes do not judge a bullying case psychologically.
The authorities view some incidents of bullying as child play. At other times, the authorities fail to believe that a child could perform actions with the intentions of harming another child. Authorities tend to make a general assumption that children of a certain age are innocent and harmless while they are the bullies.
Some victims fail to report incidents of bullying Goldstein, It is challenging the authorities to deal with an incident, which has not been reported. At the same time, some victims report bullying incidents late. This hinders the disciplinary process to take place because the bullying action has already affected the victim.
Some bullies also run away from school when they realize that a bullying incident concerning them has been forwarded to the authorities. There is not a well-specified process for dealing with bullying in the school system. Parents who report incidents of bullying to the school on behalf of their children fail to receive cooperation from the school administration Klein, Parents who report incidents of bullying in elementary school do not receive any feedback on the action that the school takes.
There is no specified process to handle bullies. In some institutions, a bully is taken to detention while, in others, a bully is given a warning letter. This makes it difficult for the victims and authorities to know how best to handle incidents of bullying. The process for reporting incidents of bullying is not clearly defined Goldstein, Schools do not have a system for reporting bullies and incidents of bullying. This presents a challenge to the victim on whom to tell when they are bullied.
Some schools tell students to report bullying incidents to the principle. In other schools, students should report cases of bullying to the tutor on duty. In some schools, students should report bullying incidents to the guidance and counselor. The school system needs to have a well-defined process for reporting and handling bullying cases.
I agree with Goldstein that the process to report incidents of bullying in schools is not clearly defined Goldstein, This poses a challenge to the victims of bullying because they do not know whom to tell. When a bullying incident is reported that is the first step to solving the problem. Schools need to define a system that supports students and reporting of bullying incidents.
I agree will Goldstein that some victims of bullying in learning institutions fail to report bullying cases Goldstein, The authorities cannot handle incidents that they do not know about. Victims of bullying should report bullying incidents so that investigations can take place and the bullies punished. Failure to report incidents of bullying makes bullies continue bullying their peers. I agree with Dosani that it is hard to fight bullying especially incidents from children who face domestic violence Dosani, Some children face domestic violence and get bullied in schools.
Other children become bullies because they see one of their parents being bullied. For Domestic violence, the child perceives is of force and violence against their peers as a good thing. It is hard to instill discipline to a child who comes from a background of domestic violence. I disagree with Klein that some schools fail to cooperate with parents who report bullying incidents.
School heads know that their school reputation can be ruined once incidents of bullying become public Klein, Therefore, the school administrations in a bid to maintain a good public image cooperate with parents who report cases of bullying. The school administrators also have their interests as safeguarding the security and wellbeing of students. Therefore, school heads support and cooperate with parents who report incidents of bullying.
They also assist in the process of investigating and offer psychological help to the victims of bullying. I disagree with Goldstein that authorities fail to investigate incidents, which seem exaggerated Goldstein, Authorities and school administrators do not handle offences using intuition. Authorities do not perceive any child as innocent.
Cases in the past have proved that school going children undertake risky actions ignorantly. First, the authorities should raise awareness about bullying in school. In essence, Campaigns to raise awareness about bullying should be conducted in schools Klein, These campaigns should be student friendly where students can ask questions about bullying and learn more about bullying.
Secondly, teaching and non-teaching staff in schools should receive training. Training will enable the teaching and non-teaching staff to identify incidents of bullying which are not reported. This helps to solve incidents of bullying on students who fear to report Goldstein, Bullying is a violent practice that takes place in schools. This paper has highlighted the historical events in bullying in the United States.
It has also highlighted the social psychological concepts of bullying. Finally, the paper has given recommendations on how the authorities should deal with incidents of bullying in schools. Dosani, S. Bullying brilliant ideas for keeping your child safe and happy. Oxford: Infinite Ideas. Goldstein, A.
The psychology of group aggression. Chichester, West Sussex: J. Klein, J. The bully society: school shootings and the crisis of bullying in America's schools. I have been a victim of bullying, but not as severely as most. All of these forms of bullying can result in mental and physical damage to the people being bullied. To discuss this current topic, I have divided my sample paper into 3 sections specifying the practice of bullying and how we can prevent it and save the children.
The researchers then compared the concurrent psychological symptoms of 4 participant groups: bullies, victims, bullies who were also victims. Objective: The main aim of this research is to investigate the prevalence of bullying behaviour, its victims and the types of bullying and places of bullying among.
Maybe that is why farce. This page contains a variety of research and other resources related to school bullying. School safety. The following research paper focuses on both traditional bullying and. Research Papers are not resold to other. Free bullying papers, essays, and research papers. Research on the experience of bullying in a college setting between genders.
This paper focuses on senior high school students and the ways that bullying affects their school attendance. Webmail Intranet FTP. Research paper on bullying project statistics can you write my essay for me dissertation abstracts international online write a good college essay. Bullying and Other School Violence, is proposed. Requirements for the. The following manual helps to choose an excellent topic question for a research project on the phenomenon of bullying.
This paper investigates the effects of bullying in elementary school on. This paper summarises the bullying in the workplace literature and proposes the first specific model of the psychological harassment process in order to.
The following research paper is intended to focus on the effects of school bullying and what society can do to help prevent future bullying from. A research review paper was published in Educational Psychology. Despite this, very little research documents the impact of bullying.
Researchers who study bullying use specific terms to describe the roles.
In secondary school, the stability of both bully and victim roles is considerably higher than in primary school according to teacher, peer, and self-reports. It is estimated that two out of three male bullies remain in their role over a 1-year period. Despite the moderate to high stability of the victim and bully roles in secondary school, prevalence rates are lower than in primary school. This suggests that a small number of victims are targeted consistently and systematically in secondary school.
Stability in bullying victimization has been explained in two ways. Firstly, it has been observed that victims select social environments that reinforce the risk of victimization, for example, they are more likely to have friends who are less accepted by the peer group and often victimized themselves. Secondly, victims often lack the social skills to break through in new environments, and this increases the risk that they are labeled as victims and locked in that role over a long period of time.
It is important, therefore, to acknowledge that although for some children bullying victimization will be situational, for others it will develop into a trait. The view that males are more likely to bully and be bullied than females has been dismissed in recent years following a better understanding about the different forms aggressive behavior such as bullying can take.
Although males are more likely to engage in physical forms of bullying such as pushing and hitting, females are, according to some studies, more adept at employing relational forms of aggression e. No consistent gender differences have been identified in the use of verbal bullying e. This suggests that overall gender differences are not as pronounced as originally thought and that bullying is not a male problem. There is some controversy in the literature about the profile of bullies.
Initially, studies described children who bullied others as insecure, anxious individuals who have low self-esteem, are unpopular among their classmates, and use aggressive strategies to resolve conflicts. This stereotype was later disputed by research that suggested bullies are socially competent and have superior theory of mind skills i. Linked to this, there is also debate concerning whether bullies lack empathic skills. Some research suggests that bullies understand the emotions of others but do not share them.
The inconsistencies across studies may be, at least partly, due to different definitions of bully status and different methodologies employed. Another meta-analysis by Card found that the strongest correlates of the victimization experience are low self-concept, low physical strength, low school enjoyment, poor social skills, and high internalizing and externalizing problems.
It was unclear from these reviews of cross-sectional studies, however, whether internalizing problems lead to victimization or vice versa. The recent body of longitudinal research on bullying and peer victimization more widely suggests that the relationship between internalizing problems such as depression, anxiety and loneliness, and victimization is more likely to be reciprocal, that is, internalizing problems contribute to victimization and vice versa.
A metaanalysis of 18 longitudinal studies examining associations between peer victimization and internalizing problems in children and adolescents concluded that internalizing problems both precede and follow peer victimization experiences Reijntjes et al. It is worth noting, however, that the path from psychological maladjustment to victimization has not been replicated in all studies.
For instance, Bond et al. Recent work suggests that bullying might arise out of early cognitive deficits, including language problems, imperfect causal understanding, and poor inhibitory control that lead to decreased competence with peers, which over time develops into bullying. Research does not support the assertion that physical appearance e. The only physical characteristic that has been associated with an increased risk of victimization is low physical size and strength.
There is less evidence on how equality characteristics influence victimization. There is no consistently robust evidence to suggest that ethnic minority children are more at risk of being bullied at school. Sexual orientation has rarely been investigated in longitudinal studies as a possible risk factor of bullying victimization, but there is some, mainly qualitative, evidence of sexual minorities being targeted in secondary schools.
There is stronger evidence that children with disabilities are particularly vulnerable to victimization in mainstream settings, although it might be other characteristics of disabled children that make them more vulnerable to victimization such as lack of friends rather than the disability per se. Research has identified that bully-victims are the most troubled group among children and adolescents involved in bullying incidents.
This group displays the highest levels of internalizing problems, including depression, anxiety, low selfesteem, and loneliness. At the same time, they score high on externalizing problems such as aggression, impulsivity, hyperactivity, and conduct problems.
Other research has shown that bully-victims display higher levels of neuroticism and psychoticism than either bullies or victims. Bully-victims use aggressive strategies to cope with stressors at school that increase the risk of further victimization and rejection from peers. Besides the traditional roles of bully, victim, and bully-victim, research has identified that all students take on a role when bullying episodes emerge.
Salmivalli et al. Subsequent research established that the three roles of bully, reinforcer, and assistant are closely correlated with each other and, therefore, cannot usefully discriminate between children. In kindergarten, the three most commonly held roles are those of the bully, the victim, and the defender.
Fewer students are defenders by middle school, and the majority becomes witnesses or bystanders when bullying takes place. Such passive behavior, although not directly encouraging of bullying, provides a permissive context for bullies that allows them to continue harassing their victims. There is clear evidence that parenting styles are related to bullying behavior.
Studies indicate that bullies are more likely to have parents who are authoritarian and punitive, disagree more often, and are less supportive. The parents of bullies are more likely to have been bullies themselves when they were young. Victims, on the other hand, are more likely to have been reared in an overprotective family environment. Bully-victims tend to come from family backgrounds that are exposed to abuse and violence and favor the use of harsh, punitive, and restrictive discipline practices.
This group reports little positive warmth in their families and more difficulties in communicating with parents. Family characteristics are related to bullying victimization in different ways for boys and girls.
Boys are more prone to victimization when the father is highly critical or absent in his relationship with his son, thus failing to provide a satisfactory role model. Very little research has examined longitudinal associations between early home environment and subsequent bullying behavior. The few studies that exist suggest a link between low emotional support and subsequent bullying behavior at school. Parents who are disagreeable, hostile, cold, or rejecting tend to have children who are at risk of becoming aggressive in the future.
In a small longitudinal study, Schwartz et al. Mother-child interactions at 5 years were characterized by hostile, restrictive, or overly punitive parenting. They were significantly exposed to higher levels of marital conflicts and more likely to come from marginally lower socioeconomic backgrounds.
Bullies were found to be exposed to adult aggression and conflicts, but not victimization by adults, and were from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. These findings need to be replicated in larger samples before any safe conclusions can be drawn. More recently, there has been interest in how sibling relationships affect the development of bullying behavior. There is international evidence that children who are victimized at school are more likely, compared to other groups, to be victimized by their siblings at home.
Wolke and Samara found that more than half of victims of bullying by siblings Those who were both victimized at home and at school had the highest behavior problems and were the least prosocial. Similar evidence exists in relation to bullying perpetration, suggesting that those who bully at school tend to exhibit similar behaviors towards their siblings at home.
A number of school factors have also been implicated as correlates of bullying behavior. One of the most consistent findings in the international literature is that the number and quality of friends at school is one of the strongest, if not the strongest, protective factor against bullying victimization.
Having friends is not sufficient in itself to protect against victimization. More recent work on the role of class structure and climate on bullying has shown that variations in peer structure and dominance hierarchies influence the stability of bullying victimization. The results of these studies suggest that victims and bully-victims manifest more adjustment problems than bullies. Victims and, especially, bully-victims are more likely to show elevated levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness; perform less well academically; and display conduct problems.
The only negative long-term outcome that has consistently been reported in the literature for bullies is their involvement in later offending. There is also some initial evidence that bullying perpetration is a significant risk factor of poor academic performance.
Several cross-sectional studies have demonstrated negative associations between peer victimization and a range of internalizing problems, including loneliness and low self-esteem. A meta-analysis of 23 cross-sectional studies of the association between peer victimization and psychological maladjustment found that peer victimization was more strongly concurrently associated with depression than with anxiety, loneliness, or self-esteem Hawker and Boulton Over the last decade, research on bullying is increasingly reliant on longitudinal methodologies to disentangle whether victimization contributes to internalizing problems or vice versa.
In the past, many adults and educators perceive bullying as something that all children go through; just kids being kids. Children are all effected differently depending on the degree of the bullying, some even ending in tragic events. Being proactive in recognizing bullying can lead to a drastic decrease in bullying cases. Educated professionals are being trained in order to pick up on signs that an act of bullying is happening and how to address and resolve the situation.
Thankfully, more and more states are issuing laws to protect the schools and the students against bullying. As a result, anti-bullying programs were created to provide a safe learning environment for students and have been effective all over the world. In order for us to better understand bullying, we must know what bullying is. In order to learn exactly what a bully is, you must first break down what a bully is in its simplest form.
The act of bullying requires two people, the bully and the person being bullied. The behavior is repeated, or has the potential to be repeated, over time. Bullying includes actions such as making threats, spreading rumors, attacking someone physically or verbally, and excluding someone from a group on purpose stopbullying. The act of bullying can be separated into three categories: verbal name calling, teasing , social ignoring or isolating , and physical bullying hitting, kicking.
Now with the recent boom in technology, a new form of bullying has now emerged — cyber bullying. In any event, all forms of bullying have a direct result on the victim. Bullying is a form of abuse that carries on over the course of time. However, research indicates that the harm inflicted by bullying, whether physical or psychological, has implications and can result in a snowball effect of lasting and painful emotions and negative impacts.
Although bullying consists of two core components, the bully and the person being bullied, the difference in the type of bullying differs greatly. The person who plays the part of the bully is acting in a conscious, willful, and deliberate activity where the primary purpose is to generate fear through the threat of additional aggressive acts.
This further act of aggression and creation of terror creates the lasting impression of intimidation and an uncomfortable emotional sense that the bully uses to maintain power. Once a bully has created this superiority, the bully will continue to victimize their offender. These actions define the most common and obvious form of bullying, physical bullying. In this instance, the aggressor is most often portrayed punching, kicking, throwing objects, or participating in some form of destructive behavior that is both observable and physical.
The intimidated victim will most likely dismiss any injuries received to avoid any further incidents. At this point, the bully has already established their control and will continue to exercise their power over the victim. In many instances, victims have been found to report a combination of physical and verbal bullying. The verbal threatening, taunting, and name calling has been found to be a commonality with physical bullying.
With our society constantly evolving, so has the manner in which individuals are bullied. Since the emergence of the internet, social media, and the technological advancements of telecommunications, the ease and the way people communicate has created a breeding ground for young adults to bully one another. Cyber bullying has now transcended the traditional sense of bullying and evolved into a form that allows a person to hide their identity behind a computer.
Examples of cyber bullying include malicious text messages or emails, rumors posted on social networking sites, and embarrassing photos, videos, or fake profiles. Although cyber bullying is often experienced indirectly, as opposed to a face to face confrontation with traditional bullying, the potential for reaching a larger audience is greater. A form of cyber bullying would be posting a status that is intended to be vague, however, is specifically directed towards someone using an insignificant clue that the victim would know is directed at them.
Once a publication is made through a social media network, the potential for further sharing increases exponentially. At this point, the repetitiveness for the bullying to continue can carry on by other people, causing a snowball effect. That single act creates a vicious circle that the victim may experience over and over.
A school is intended to design an atmosphere where children experience a positive and inviting environment, where growth and individuality is welcomed and encouraged. The fear of being harassed or excluded by peers in school contributes to dropout rates and poor academic achievement, causing additional victimization.
Strategies like this help to revert the power imbalance that a bully thrives on to gain power. Research on anti-bullying programs have shown that information provided for parents through newsletters and parent meetings proved to be successful. Other common ways to help combat the effects of bullying included more social interactions for the victim. Educators and parents are urged to have the child participate in organized social activities to initiate new friendships and build confidence with other children for a feeling of belonging.
If the child is interested in music, art, or sports, they are encouraged to develop and practice that talent to reinforce confidence and self-esteem. A controlled system with peer support helps victims deal with the interpersonal conflicts of bullying in a pro-active and non-violent way. We can all recall some of the struggles; studying for the big test, getting homework completed, making new friends.