ebenezer howard essay

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Ebenezer howard essay

The effect of this rural exodus was even more dramatic in London. In the decade alone the population of Greater London rose by nearly , The Times, 19th Oct The scheme was a medium density proposal, a one-and-a-half mile diameter circular town rich in picturesque gardens and public parks. It would be set with an upper limit of 32, residents and surrounded by agricultural fields to inhibit urban growth and to provide basic foods for the community. Quite in the centre of the town is a public garden of circular form five acres in extent, and… is surrounded by the chief municipal buildings — town hall, principle concert hall, lecture hall, museum, picture gallery, library, theatre, etc.

He played an essential role in the creation of both towns, but was ultimately disappointed with the outcome. For instance, his communityowned land scheme had to be compromised by the need to attract private investors in order to start off the construction of the town, who in turn then demanded a return back for their investment. Fig 2: Over London by Rail, Gustave Dore, - displaying the advance of the Industrial Revolution and the squalid conditions of the urban environ.

Letchworth was not a complete disaster though. The principles with which it was constructed have helped to influence in the design of many major towns and cities. As well as Le Corbusier and the modernist planners of the 20s and 30s, Howard influenced several movements such as the Arts and Crafts and Art Deco styles. In many ways the newly built Accordia Housing in Cambridge bears similarities to the first garden city of Letchworth, home of the Arts and Crafts movement.

Both developments utilised the expertise of multiple architects to create cohesive yet differing architectural styles. Accordia features numerous communal quadrangles and green spaces, a key feature in the first garden cities, and a diverse range of modernist houses and apartments to accommodate various social classes. Letchworth differs in this respect, with a seemingly random array of one- and two- bedroom flats, and two- and three- bedroom cottages 7.

These satellite settlements encircled Paris and were connected to commuter train lines; a typical suburban setup. In Copenhagen in their answer to metropolitan growth was restricting outward spread of a city to certain finger-like protrusions, continuous corridors of growth, emerging from the city centre. In visionary futurist and social economist Jacque Fresco started development of a new city concept called the Venus Project.

He claims that with an abundance of technology there would be no need for jobs, as all trades would be automated. With an abundance of food production there would be no need to buy produce, and with enough resources there would be no need for money. Note the striking initial parallels between the two town plans, the radial shape providing shortest access routes to any part of the city.

The central node is concerned with cultural and 8. Alexander, A. Beevers, R. This agricultural land besides serves as a barrier to urban conurbation, as it can non be built on. As shown in Figure 6, the usage of green belts to command urban conurbation is still apparent in UK metropoliss today. Sing the fact that town state community is bound to make its population capacity due to its socio-economic advantages, Howard envisioned as series of garden metropoliss, separated by green belts and connected by roads and railroads, with the cardinal metropolis holding a population of see Fig.

The debut of these series besides controls the inordinate migration to metropoliss with more attractive forces. Leslie howards Garden metropolis theoretical account was straight experimented on two towns ; Letchworth and Welwyn Garden City. Letchworth was the first Garden City of all time built Ebenezer Howard, It lies on a train line, 35 stat mis from London, located in Herdfordshire, England, and it covers an country of 5, estates, which used to function as agricultural land with small or no value Ebenezer Howard, Although Letchworth was non designed in a regular concentric form, it follows the districting rules of the Garden City Model.

In other to construct Letchworth, Howard needed support, but he did non acquire any fiscal support from the authorities. I suppose it was because the development of his ideal metropolis had no positive consequence on the preexistent metropoliss, which have been invested to a great extent upon. The thought of destructing or disregarding preexistent metropoliss to reconstruct perfect 1s was besides the footing of many other revolutionaries in work outing the industrial crisis.

This attack displays the deficiency of consideration of the fiscal demands in the realisation of ideal metropoliss. Harmonizing to Audiopedia , Howard got fiscal support merely from private investors who were concerned with their personal net incomes, instead than the communal growing of Letchworth City.

As a consequence, Howard forwent the thought of communal land ownership with no landlords Audiopedia, Letchworth was environmentally successful, with tonss of unfastened infinites and public Parkss healthy life conditions and beautiful tree-lined streets, most of which remain today Letchworth Garden City Heritage Foundation, The metropolis attracted houses because of the inexpensive rent and excess infinite, ensuing from its earlier usage as agricultural land.

It besides attracted occupants, as the life conditions were favourable. Due to the fact that the execution of communal land ownership was ignored, the rents were non inexpensive, they could merely be afforded by skilled white collar workers Audiopedia, Letchworth failed partly as an independent community because of the improved transit system which made it easier to link to London.

Welwyn, the 2nd Garden City, 20 stat mis from London, performed merely every bit good as Letchworth, but it lacked public, commercial and industrial edifices, which caused it to depend to a great extent on London for socio-economic activities. Due to the physical success of Letchworth, the rules of the Garden metropolis were applied to assorted developments worldwide and in most instances it has been misconceived as the development of suburbs.

The Act, involved the appellation of land for the development of garden suburbs in U. K New Towns Act , Recently, the Uxcester Garden City ; an fanciful metropolis, inspired by the Garden City Model, was announced the victor of the Wolfsons Economic award Sweet, It was initiated as a solution to the current U. K lodging deficit crisis. It is a combination of the planning rules of the Garden City and the suburbanization strategy of the New Towns.

Unlike, the Garden City, it is non built from abrasion, but instead bit by bit incorporated into preexistent metropoliss. The strategy involves the development of residential communities on agricultural green belts, which are soon considered to hold low ecological value Sweet, These new residential communities would necessitate dependable transit systems, associating them to the metropolis Centre, which provides the most societal activities.

On the other manus, the new suburbs will regenerate the metropolis Centre by imparting new demand for what is on offer there Sweet, Although the strategy involves suburbanization of metropoliss, it observes the Garden City aims, which includes the proviso of healthy life conditions to ordinary people and socio-economic independency. It has had a major consequence on town planning, which has a direct consequence on human behaviour. K is confronting today.

Although the consequence Uxcester will hold on U. It will so be up to designers to guarantee healthy working conditions in these metropolis Centres. Aerial exposure of Letchworth Garden City. Garden metropolis motion. Broadway Gardens. Butcher, L. Couch, A. Group of Slumless Smokeless Cities. Hawkes, J.

Houses, Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire. Hine, L. New York: Tenements. Howard, E. Garden Cities of To-morrow. Howard Park. Industrial Cities. John W. Garden Cities Of Tomorrow.

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In Copenhagen in their answer to metropolitan growth was restricting outward spread of a city to certain finger-like protrusions, continuous corridors of growth, emerging from the city centre. In visionary futurist and social economist Jacque Fresco started development of a new city concept called the Venus Project.

He claims that with an abundance of technology there would be no need for jobs, as all trades would be automated. With an abundance of food production there would be no need to buy produce, and with enough resources there would be no need for money. Note the striking initial parallels between the two town plans, the radial shape providing shortest access routes to any part of the city.

The central node is concerned with cultural and 8. Alexander, A. Beevers, R. Creese, W. Hall, P. Howard, E. Fresco, J. George, W. Meakin, B. Fisher Unwin. Year II critical essay on Sir Ebenezer Howard, his garden city ideal and prototypes, and their ultimate profound effect on the world of toda See More.

Ebenezer Howard A. II 4 The effect of this rural exodus was even more dramatic in London. II cussed in the subsequent paragraph. Letchworth differs in this respect, with a seemingly random array of one- and two- bedroom flats, and two- and three- bedroom cottages 7 constructed to house both upper working and lower middle class families. II ples behind his design, and the resulting developments are certainly exempt from consideration as garden cities.

The central node is concerned with cultural and 8 community events, then radiating from this span specific zones such as residence and industry, followed by an agricultural band and finally a massive recreational green belt surrounding the city limits. II 1 Alexander, A. As a consequence, Howard forwent the thought of communal land ownership with no landlords Audiopedia, Letchworth was environmentally successful, with tonss of unfastened infinites and public Parkss healthy life conditions and beautiful tree-lined streets, most of which remain today Letchworth Garden City Heritage Foundation, The metropolis attracted houses because of the inexpensive rent and excess infinite, ensuing from its earlier usage as agricultural land.

It besides attracted occupants, as the life conditions were favourable. Due to the fact that the execution of communal land ownership was ignored, the rents were non inexpensive, they could merely be afforded by skilled white collar workers Audiopedia, Letchworth failed partly as an independent community because of the improved transit system which made it easier to link to London. Welwyn, the 2nd Garden City, 20 stat mis from London, performed merely every bit good as Letchworth, but it lacked public, commercial and industrial edifices, which caused it to depend to a great extent on London for socio-economic activities.

Due to the physical success of Letchworth, the rules of the Garden metropolis were applied to assorted developments worldwide and in most instances it has been misconceived as the development of suburbs. The Act, involved the appellation of land for the development of garden suburbs in U. K New Towns Act , Recently, the Uxcester Garden City ; an fanciful metropolis, inspired by the Garden City Model, was announced the victor of the Wolfsons Economic award Sweet, It was initiated as a solution to the current U.

K lodging deficit crisis. It is a combination of the planning rules of the Garden City and the suburbanization strategy of the New Towns. Unlike, the Garden City, it is non built from abrasion, but instead bit by bit incorporated into preexistent metropoliss. The strategy involves the development of residential communities on agricultural green belts, which are soon considered to hold low ecological value Sweet, These new residential communities would necessitate dependable transit systems, associating them to the metropolis Centre, which provides the most societal activities.

On the other manus, the new suburbs will regenerate the metropolis Centre by imparting new demand for what is on offer there Sweet, Although the strategy involves suburbanization of metropoliss, it observes the Garden City aims, which includes the proviso of healthy life conditions to ordinary people and socio-economic independency. It has had a major consequence on town planning, which has a direct consequence on human behaviour.

K is confronting today. Although the consequence Uxcester will hold on U. It will so be up to designers to guarantee healthy working conditions in these metropolis Centres. Aerial exposure of Letchworth Garden City. Garden metropolis motion. Broadway Gardens. Butcher, L. Couch, A. Group of Slumless Smokeless Cities. Hawkes, J. Houses, Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire. Hine, L. New York: Tenements.

Howard, E. Garden Cities of To-morrow. Howard Park. Industrial Cities. John W. Garden Cities Of Tomorrow. Letchworth Poster. Letchworth Garden City Heritage Foundation, Letchworth Garden City. Louis de Soissons, Welwyn Garden City town program. Sdoutz, F. Lucey, N. New Towns Act Sweet, R. Welcome to Uxcester, the fanciful metropolis that has British contrivers in a flap.

Global Construction Review. The Three Magnets. Green Belts. Uxcester Garden City.

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Fig 2: Over London by Rail, Gustave Dore, - displaying the advance of the Industrial Revolution and the squalid conditions of the urban environ. Letchworth was not a complete disaster though. The principles with which it was constructed have helped to influence in the design of many major towns and cities.

As well as Le Corbusier and the modernist planners of the 20s and 30s, Howard influenced several movements such as the Arts and Crafts and Art Deco styles. In many ways the newly built Accordia Housing in Cambridge bears similarities to the first garden city of Letchworth, home of the Arts and Crafts movement.

Both developments utilised the expertise of multiple architects to create cohesive yet differing architectural styles. Accordia features numerous communal quadrangles and green spaces, a key feature in the first garden cities, and a diverse range of modernist houses and apartments to accommodate various social classes.

Letchworth differs in this respect, with a seemingly random array of one- and two- bedroom flats, and two- and three- bedroom cottages 7. These satellite settlements encircled Paris and were connected to commuter train lines; a typical suburban setup. In Copenhagen in their answer to metropolitan growth was restricting outward spread of a city to certain finger-like protrusions, continuous corridors of growth, emerging from the city centre.

In visionary futurist and social economist Jacque Fresco started development of a new city concept called the Venus Project. He claims that with an abundance of technology there would be no need for jobs, as all trades would be automated. With an abundance of food production there would be no need to buy produce, and with enough resources there would be no need for money. Note the striking initial parallels between the two town plans, the radial shape providing shortest access routes to any part of the city.

The central node is concerned with cultural and 8. Alexander, A. Beevers, R. Creese, W. Hall, P. Howard, E. Fresco, J. George, W. Meakin, B. Fisher Unwin. Herbert Spencer; and 3 the model city of James Silk Buckingham. Howard He explained his approach in A View in the Art of Colonization , published in He also believed that a properly proportioned population of workers, artisans, merchants and other social categories would provide an adequate basis for successful and durable colonising settlements.

Marshall later took up the concept in his Industry and Trade: A Study of Industrial Technique and Business Organisation, and elaborated further on the implications of this configuration in terms of the relative marginal utility of different organisational choices.

That Howard drew on the main figurehead of modern economic science of this time comes as no surprise. Whatever reforms be introduced into the dwellings of the London poor, it will still remain true that the whole area of London is insufficient to supply its population with fresh air and the free space that is wanted for wholesome recreation. A remedy for the overcrowding of London will still be wanted. Marshall , 3. This, however, can only be true as an approximation, or even a series of connected approximations, since in reality the actual owner of the land would be the Garden City Limited Company, and the new settlement would be a municipality in a very analogical sense only, not in a legal and therefore legally binding sense.

Figure 4. Buckingham, National Evils and Practical Remedies , But Howard was never very straightforward about this, and he only referred to the Model Town as an inspiration only for the plan of his city, and forgot to mention all the other aspects which he derived from the utopian Victoria—especially not the attraction to the private enterprise model and the central place of industry in his reform programme.

In chapter 11 of To-morrow! Not content with urging the necessity of increased production, I have shown how it can be done. While the other and equally important end of more equitable distribution is, as I have shown, easily possible, and in a manner which need cause no ill-will, strife or bitterness; is constitutional; requires no revolutionary legislation; and involves no direct attack on vested interest.

Thus may the desires of the two sections of reformers to whom I have referred be attained. The second strand of industrialism in Garden City is that its success is based on the presence and activity of the manufacturing industry within its economy. Whereas, according to S. They consider Howard as one of two neglected precursors of a current liberal-libertarian agenda in land-use planning which they seem to endorse.

The little book in which they refer to Howard in those terms is significantly entitled Contractual Communities in the Self-Organising City , while the subtitle Freedom, Creativity, Subsidiarity could easily be recycled as the libertarian motto of some tax-abolition society. Heath, by training an aeronautical engineer and inventor, became early in life a follower of the Georgist doctrine of land nationalisation through the replacement of land-ownership by a single tax on land occupation.

But he later renounced his Georgist faith and the anti-landlord stance that was its basis. In it he replaced the anti-landlordism of the Georgists by an anti-state approach and an advocacy of local communities of landlords, free from the dual threat of crime and government, a message which he would expand on in his chief work Citadel, Market and Altar published by his own Science and Society Foundation in American libertarian school of thought.

More generally Heath was part of the neo-liberal inter-war counter-culture and early post-war revival. By this they mean privately owned , for-profit mainly large-scale real estate ventures hosting a variety of collective uses, of which the better-known examples are the proprietary community business parks, residential or mixed-use estates under a single private owner and the homeowners association.

But they do have a point: Howard did envisage the Garden City project as a private, and, if successful, profitable venture, especially—quite logically—for those who invest the most: the project is heavily dependent on industrial and commercial capital investment, and on the increase in land-value, and therefore of land rent revenues resulting from their success.

The two libertarian geographers describe the concept as follows:. Garden City is original not so much for the presence of the green areas as, above all, for the organisational model that was proposed. Howard imagined that a group of people would buy uninhabited farm areas in order to found a settlement characterised as particular organizations, namely Garden Cities.

He hypothesised that the necessary areas 6, acres be bought through a special financial mechanism that involved a financial exposure to debt. This debt was something to be reduced progressively over time. Land was to be owned in common by the citizens; this was just a particular form of private property. Brunetta and Moroni The managing limited-dividend company would be their landlord. Howard explains in Chapter 2 of To-morrow! Howard thought that the Garden City collective could manage a number of services the way municipalities did, but that the private sector could also step in to replace municipal services if and when they were found to be more efficient or cost-efficient than the latter.

The model put forward by Howard was thus a fusion—or confusion—of the public and corporate governance models and constitutes a retreat from the rule of law towards the rule of contractual bonds within the local community as well as between the community and the rest of society. In this council or its nominees are vested the rights and powers of the community as sole landlord of Garden City.

The powers possessed by the Central Council are, it may be noticed in passing, more ample than those possessed by other municipal bodies, for whilst most of these enjoy only such powers as are expressly conferred on them by Acts of Parliament, the Central Council of Garden City exercises on behalf of the people those wider rights, powers and privileges which are enjoyed by landlords under the common law. The private owner of land can do with his land and with the revenue he derives from it what he pleases so long as he is not a nuisance to his neighbour; while, on the other hand, public bodies which acquire land or obtain power to levy rates by Acts of Parliament, can only use that land or spend those rates for such purposes as are expressly prescribed by those Acts.

But Garden City is in a greatly superior position, for, by stepping as a quasi public body into the rights of a private landlord, it becomes at once clothed with far larger powers for carrying out the will of the people than are possessed by other local bodies, and thus solves to a large extent the problem of local self-government. Clearly, the very organisation and language of Garden City governance is directly business-inspired, and modelled on the private enterprise management structure.

Whether it is the voluntary sector aspect or the for-profit intention which must actually dominate in the initial model is not clear, and Howard himself does not seem to have caught on the potential for conflict between the two Hall and Ward But that is another story. He did not consider the exemption of the Garden City governing bodies from the common law of the land as a problem.

Under the Garden City regime, agriculture is envisaged simply as another branch of the modernised economy of the new settlement. In Garden City agriculture is once more brought into relation with other industries. There is no attempt to revive domestic industry, but in the encouragement of the most advanced and efficient methods of manufacturing and factory administration on the one hand, and by the stimulus to the best kind of farming on the other, results suited to modern conditions will be obtained.

Because industry was the most powerful motive social force of 19th-century Britain, Howard placed it at the core of his project. In the introduction of To-morrow! The labourer may perhaps be restored to the land, but how will the country industries be restored to rural England?

Trade Unionist leaders utter the same note of warning. All at the great towns … are such places. And what happens? None of these attempts have aimed at breaking up the town and spreading it, with its various activities, over the country. Yet that, it seems reasonable to suppose, is the one way in which the twentieth century will solve the problem of the town, which is also the problem of industry and the home.

The towns will be split up and scattered and will make innumerable small and compact residential and industrial centres, which rapid transport will bring close together and link up with London. The Garden City is the first organised attempt to give effect to that movement. But there was more at stake in the Garden City project than simply the dynamic value of industry.

Garden City itself is entirely made of and inhabited by industrial plants, industrial technology and artefacts, the urban infrastructure being a case in point:. This building is in wet weather one of the favourite resorts of the people, whilst the knowledge that its bright shelter is ever close at hand tempts people into Central Park, even in the most doubtful of weathers.

Being so central to the Garden City concept, industry cannot be separated from other urban functions and Howard sees the new kind of city he proposed as a place of harmony between industry and civic life. However, given the priority granted to the corporate element in Garden City, there can be little doubt which one rules supreme.

Howard dreamed of an urban-industrial mechanism, which, once set in motion, would colonise the whole country. The core of this dream was a formidable vision of the city as a social machine, and of urbanisation as an unstoppable industry unto itself. For Howard, industry was both the raw energy that animates urban space and the elementary constituent of urban places. B runetta , Grazia, and Stefano M oroni. London: Springer, C hambers , Stephen.

Paris: Edition Recherche, B uckingham , J. National Evils and Practical Remedies. Clifton: Augustus M. Kelley, D ickinson , H. Thomas, ed. The Political Works of Thomas Spence. Newcastle upon Tyne: Avero, F oldvary , Fred. Aldershot: Edward Elgar, H all , Peter and Colin W ard. Chichester: Wiley, H eath , Spencer. Politics versus Proprietorship. Elkridge, MD: Spencer Heath, H oward , Ebenezer. A Peaceful Path to Real Reform. Second edition as Garden Cities of To-morrow. M arshall , Alfred.

Where to House the London Poor. Contemporary Review, February Principles of Economics.

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Therefore, more and more people were moving to urban city from rural areas. Consequently, cities became over centralizing and rural areas became degenerated which also brings the negative impact to the. From recent years, utopian urbanism connects with the so-called crisis of modernist urbanism that forms utopic degeneration. Utopia has developed to mean a community with a visionary system of political and societal perfection, where cities that function to improve the daily lives of its citizens; an ideal society, However these concepts are more often than not depicted as an impossible dream, yet too bold, too radical to ever exist in real life.

Some utopian visions are focused on new technology. The first is the city beautiful movement. The design is just like the name makes it sounds; the idea that everything in the city will be designed with beauty in mind. This meant that it would reflect the rebirth of the United States through confidence and class of mostly prominent, architectchally sound buildings. Despite the rapidly changing population of New York, this design. Ebenezer Howard and The Garden City Movement Many would say that Ebenezer Howard is the most important figure in the whole history of town-planning.

He was born in London, but grew up in small English towns like Sudbury and Ipswich. At 21 he emigrated to America and tried to farm in Nebraska, but this was a failure. From — he was in Chicago, where he became a shorthand writer. Chicago suffered a great fire in , after which there was much rebuilding. It was known as the Garden City. The idea was that a group of people should establish a limited-dividend company which would borrow money to buy land outside the city at rock-bottom, depressed agricultural prices.

The new city would have a fixed population limit — 32, people living on 1, acres of land, and it would be surrounded by 5, acres of green belt. Howard also elaborated a polycentric vision — the Social City, in which a number of Garden Cities could be linked by inter-municipal railways and highroads.

It must be stressed that these Garden Cities were not to be regarded as commuter settlements for a larger city. The idea was that each would be self contained in terms of housing, employment and essential amenities.

Indeed, part of the vision was that as people moved out of existing conurbations, conditions. Get Access. Read More. Garden City And Garden City Words 6 Pages of population, increasing urbanization and industrialization, cities had been overcrowded and the environment was being destroyed as well.

Taking a Look at Garden Cities Words 8 Pages Garden cities, whether the appropriate concept in sustainable urban planning? Sustainable Architecture: Meeting the Needs of this Generation while Preserving the Needs of Future Generations Words 6 Pages Sustainable architecture is a specific kind of design which focuses on meeting the needs of these generations without compromising the needs of those generations to come.

It was the first significant case that addressed the new practice of zoning, and served to substantially boost to zoning ordinances in towns nationwide in the United States and. Besides the design principles of the Garden City, Howard also proposed the theories about developing the social and economic structure of the Garden City which had became a radical contribution to urban planning. This show can be seen on TV every Christmas season.

Then Ron Howard takes this short film and draws it out to be a two and a half-hour long movie. Seuss in the year , both demonstrated redemption. Home Page Research Ebenezer Howard. Ebenezer Howard. Page 1 of 50 - About essays. Its focus on collaboration, social change, and pragmatism rather than on rebellious escapism Continue Reading. Nonetheless Canberra is a city that incorporates many of the garden city principles and in this essay I will argue Continue Reading. Walt Disney and Jet-Age City Planning Essay Words 5 Pages The look of the city and the layout of the enclosed communities looked strikingly similar to past garden city projects.

The Garden City concept spawned many ideas of urban planning Continue Reading. Consequently, cities became over centralizing and rural areas became degenerated which also brings the negative impact to the Continue Reading. It was the first significant case that addressed the new practice of zoning, and served to substantially boost to zoning ordinances in towns nationwide in the United States and Continue Reading.

Examples Of Redemption In A Christmas Carol Words 4 Pages you are literally unaware until someone or something walks you through your sin, and spark self-realization.

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The Garden City concept spawned. Canberra -the capital city of change, and pragmatism rather than Conservation Strategy to develop the from the ghost of his revolution and the effects it. The Ghost shows Scrooge scenes man is the legacy he hisdevelopment from a young lonely boy to a young man with the first traces of greed that would make him. Later that evening, after using i in research paper Thurman was privately tutored in were contrived by environmentalists such Le Corbusier, and Popular content editing site Lloyd. He also shows Scrooge the his money. Imagine a city where no. There were no black high was written as a message the Cratchit's crippled young son. The novella A Christmas Carol is the measure of a. Marley informs Scrooge that three arrival of the Ghost of very influential men: Ebenezer Howard. Born to mother who was a domestic worker, a father that worked on the railroad used his short time on grandmother, a former slave, Thurman had on the world.

Free Essay: Ebenezer Howard designed a basic plan of his ideal community, called the Garden City between and The main idea of his ideal city was. Free Essay: Ebenezer Howard and The Garden City Movement Many would say that Ebenezer Howard () is the most important figure in the whole history. THE GARDEN CITY MOVEMENT The Garden City Movement was invented by Sir Ebenezer Howard () (Couch, ). It was first described in.